Best CBD Oil For Pain Relief Of 2023: 10 Brands To Reduce Aches

Lindsey Desoto

Updated on - Written by
Medically reviewed by Kathy Shattler, MS, RDN

All articles are produced independently. When you click our links for purchasing products, we earn an affiliate commission. Learn more about how we earn revenue by reading our advertise disclaimer.

cbdfx tincture wellness

CBDfx CBD + CBG Oil Wellness Tincture

  • Third-party tested with COA
  • High potency available
  • Includes other pain-relieving ingredients

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

CBDistillery Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture

CBDistillery Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture

  • Includes CBDA and CBD
  • 60-day money-back guarantee
  • Third-party tested with COA

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL25

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500mg

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500mg

  • Four flavors available
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Low potency available

20% Off Coupon: HC20

An estimated 50 million[1] adults in the United States (U.S.) are affected by chronic pain. Not only is chronic pain linked to anxiety, depression, and reduced quality of life, but it’s also associated with opioid dependence.

Cannabinoids — especially cannabidiol (CBD) — are often proposed as opioid alternatives, having comparable effectiveness as well as a better safety profile. But with all the different CBD oils available, narrowing down your choices can be difficult.

This article explains how CBD oil may help people with chronic pain and reviews the best CBD oil for pain.

Best CBD Oil For Pain Relief On The Market In (February. 2023)

How Can CBD Reduce Pain?

The human body contains a cell-signaling system called the endocannabinoid system, or ECS. The ECS regulates several functions throughout the body, including pain sensation[2], sleep[3], appetite[4], and immune system response[5].

It is believed that taking CBD oil can help reduce chronic pain[6] by reducing inflammation, interacting with neurotransmitters in your central nervous system, and affecting endocannabinoid receptor activity.

One 2019 study[7] examined the impact of full-spectrum CBD extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators among 97 chronic pain patients for eight weeks.

Researchers found that 53% of participants could reduce or eliminate opioids within eight weeks after adding CBD-rich hemp extract to their regimens, and 94% reported improvements in quality of life. Notably, most participants consumed around 30 milligrams (mg) of CBD daily, divided into two doses.

The Line Up At A Glance

cbdfx tincture wellness

Editor’s Choice

CBDfx CBD + CBG Oil Wellness Tincture

  • Third-party tested with COA
  • High potency available
  • Includes other pain-relieving ingredients

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

CBDistillery Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture

Runner Up

CBDistillery Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture

  • Includes CBDA and CBD
  • 60-day money-back guarantee
  • Third-party tested with COA

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL25

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500mg

Best Flavor Variety

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500mg

  • Four flavors available
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Low potency available

20% Off Coupon: HC20

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Full Spectrum Oil

Best Budget Pick

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Full Spectrum Oil

  • Trial size available
  • Third-party tested with COA
  • Full-spectrum CBD

Check Price

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Medterra True Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Best Quality

Medterra True Full Spectrum CBD Oil

  • Two flavor options
  • Full spectrum CBD
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Joy Organics Organic CBD + CBG Tincture

Best Organic

Joy Organics Organic CBD + CBG Tincture

  • USDA Certified Organic
  • Third-party tested with COA
  • Includes CBD and CBG

Check Price

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

FOCL Premium CBD Drops

Best Vegan

FOCL Premium CBD Drops

  • Vegan
  • Three flavor options
  • THC free available

25% Off + Free Shipping Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

CBDPure

Best Low Potency

CBDPure Hemp Oil 1000mg

  • Third-party tested with COA
  • 90-day money-back guarantee
  • Low potency for beginners

Free Shipping and 15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil

Best Taste

Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil

  • Four flavors available
  • Third-party tested with COA
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Green Roads Full Spectrum CBD Oil - 1500mg

Best Uniquely Formulated CBD

Green Roads Full Spectrum CBD Oil – 1500mg

  • Pharmacist formulated
  • Full-spectrum extract
  • Third-party tested with COA

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

10 Best CBD Oils For Pain Management In 2023

CBDfx CBD + CBG Oil Wellness Tincture

cbdfx tincture wellness

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See CBDfx Reviews

CBDfx CBD + CBG Oil Wellness Tincture is a high-quality CBD product that pairs CBD with other beneficial hemp compounds such as the cannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG) and antioxidants that may aid in pain reduction.

  • High-potency available
  • Third-party tested with a Certificate of Analysis (COA)
  • Gluten-free and vegan
  • Includes other additional ingredients that may increase its effectiveness in pain reduction
  • Lack of flavor options

CBDfx is one of the most popular CBD brands on the market, and for a good reason. Their CBDfx CBD + CBG Oil Wellness Tincture contains a 2:1 ratio of broad-spectrum CBD to CBG, along with the antioxidants coenzyme Q10 and curcumin (the active ingredient in turmeric). It also contains a proprietary terpene blend that may enhance the “entourage effect[8],” resulting in increased effectiveness. The entourage effect is the suggested positive contribution derived from adding terpenes to cannabinoids.

Though further research is needed, some studies[9] suggest that CBG derivatives may be effective at reducing pain, inflammation, and even obesity. Curcumin[10] also has anti-inflammatory properties, which may aid in pain reduction.

You can purchase CBDfx CBD + CBG Oil Wellness Tincture in four different strengths, 1000 mg, 2000 mg, 4000 mg, and 6000 mg potencies.

All products sold by CBDfx have been tested by a third party and come with a certificate of analysis (COA) to verify their CBD, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and terpene concentration. The COA also confirms that the product has no detectable levels of pesticides, residual solvents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and other potentially harmful substances in the product.

CBDistillery Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture

CBDistillery Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL25

See CBDistillery Reviews

Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture Oil is a decent option for pain relief because it includes full spectrum CBD, plus CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), the rawest form of CBD on the market.

  • Third-party tested with a COA
  • Full-spectrum hemp extract
  • Includes other beneficial plant compounds, which may enhance its effectiveness
  • Only one strength available

Raw Synergy CBDA + CBD 1:1 Tincture Oil is sold and manufactured by CBDistillery, an industry leader committed to producing CBD products with 100% clean ingredients.

Each bottle contains 500 mg of CBD and 500 mg of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), or about 17 mg CBD per 1 mL serving, as well as other beneficial plant compounds to boost its effectiveness. If you aren’t familiar with CBDA, it is a natural precursor of CBD Animal studies[11] show that chronic treatment with CBDA may be effective at reducing the sensation of pain.

Because this product is made with full-spectrum CBD extract, it may contain traces of THC. CBDistillery also offers CBD isolate oil containing 0% THC if you are looking for a THC-free option.

All CBD products sold by CBDistillery are derived from U.S.-grown hemp and extracted using carbon dioxide (CO2). They also undergo extensive third-party testing and come with a COA to verify their purity and potency.

Lastly, CBDistillery offers a 60-day money-back guarantee on all products. Through this guarantee, customers can — and are even encouraged — to try a range of CBD products until they find the right fit.

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500mg

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500mg

20% Off Coupon: HC20

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500 mg is a full-spectrum CBD oil that comes in several different flavors to meet various consumer preferences.

  • Multiple flavor options
  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Subscribe and save available
  • COAs not published online

Royal CBD offers an extensive collection of high-potency CBD gummies, oils, capsules, and topicals. Their Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500 mg enables you to experience the full benefits of CBD and other beneficial compounds naturally found in the cannabis plant.

With just 16.66 mg of CBD per 1 mL, it isn’t the strongest oil sold by Royal CBD, but it is a cost-effective option if you’re trying to decide if CBD is right for you.

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 500 mg comes in berry, mint, vanilla, and natural flavors to appease various taste buds.

According to Royal CBD, all hemp extracts are third-party tested to confirm no contaminants, including pesticides, heavy metals, herbicides, and organic matter like mold or bacteria, are present. However, at this time, it appears that COAs are not readily available on the company website.

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Full Spectrum Oil

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Full Spectrum Oil

Check Price

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Nuleaf Naturals Reviews

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Full Spectrum Oil is a high-quality CBD oil that comes in several sizes to fit most budgets.

  • Third-party tested with COA for microbial contamination, residual solvents, pesticides, terpenes, and cannabinoid profile
  • Full-spectrum CBD oil
  • Multiple strengths available
  • Limited return policy

Nuleaf Naturals is a popular CBD supplier known for making products from the highest-grade organic hemp grown in the United States.

Their CBD Full Spectrum Oil is a full-spectrum extract that combines CBD with other naturally occurring cannabinoids and terpenes to enhance users’ experience. All oils are extracted using advanced CO2 extraction to obtain a complete range of cannabinoids, essential oils, terpenes, and other beneficial plant chemicals.

CO2 extraction[12] is considered a clean yet cost-effective way of extracting cannabinoids from cannabis. Because of this, it’s often referred to as the “gold standard” of cannabis extraction methods.

Offering five bottle sizes and a potency of 60mg of CBD per 1mL, Nuleaf Naturals provides a solution for just about anyone looking to explore full-spectrum CBD oil. Potency levels come in units of 300 mg, 900 mg, 1,800 mg, 3,000 mg, and 6,000 mg options.

A third-party lab independently tests all products sold by Nuleaf Naturals to verify their safety and consistency. COAs are publicly displayed on their website.

Medterra True Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Medterra True Full Spectrum CBD Oil

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Medterra True Full Spectrum CBD Oil is certified by the U.S. Hemp authority and is available in two flavors.

  • Full spectrum extract
  • Third-party tested with COA
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Multiple potencies available
  • No unflavored option

Medterra produces a variety of CBD oils and other products made from organically grown hemp from Kentucky. Their True Full Spectrum CBD Oil comes in three potencies, 750 mg, 1500 mg, and 3,000 mg, to fit your needs. To help you dive into a deeper CBD experience, Medterra True Full Spectrum CBD Oil comes in two flavors: citrus and chocolate mint. Both options are flavored using stevia extract and other natural flavors.

Although stevia is included, it is one of the safer nonnutritive sweeteners despite its tendency to alter the gut microbiome[13]. We need further studies to determine whether gut microbiome alteration is a positive or negative health experience for humans.

Medterra uses a gentle CO2 extraction method to remove CBD from the hemp plant and filter out unnatural substances. Medterra True Full Spectrum CBD Oil also features medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil as a carrier oil, which may optimize absorption[14]. To dose, you place drop(s) under the tongue for absorption into the bloodstream.

All products sold by Medterra are certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority Certification program and are tested by a third party for the cannabinoid profile, THC content and potency factors. You’ll also find COAs on their product website for added transparency.

The U.S. Hemp Authority Certification program is the industry’s initiative to provide high standards, best practices, and self-regulation to give consumers confidence in CBD products.

Joy Organics Organic CBD + CBG Tincture

Joy Organics Organic CBD + CBG Tincture

Check Price

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Joy Organics Organic CBD + CBG Tincture contains two hemp-derived compounds that, when combined, may fight inflammation and promote overall well-being.

  • Third-party tested with COA
  • Includes CBD and CBG
  • USDA Certified Organic
  • Offers broad and full-spectrum profiles
  • Only one flavor option

Joy Organics is a female-owned hemp brand that offers a large selection of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Certified Organic broad- and full-spectrum CBD products.

One of the newest products to hit the company’s lineup is Joy Organics Organic CBD + CBG Tincture, which, per bottle, combines 450 mg of CBG and 450 mg of CBD in a minty olive oil base. CBG is known as the “mother of all cannabinoids” because all cannabinoids start out as a form of CBG.

Studies[15] suggest that CBG and CBD have anti-inflammatory properties, and the benefits shared by each are enhanced when combined, making the overall compound more effective.

Joy Organics uses CBD extracted from organically grown U.S. hemp using a CO2 extraction. A third party also tests all products and comes with a COA verifying their potency and purity.

FOCL Premium CBD Drops

FOCL Premium CBD Drops

25% Off + Free Shipping Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

FOCL Premium CBD Drops come from full-spectrum CBD oil and are available in several different strengths and flavors to meet the needs of variety-seeking customers. 

  • Available in broad-spectrum and full-spectrum profiles
  • Available in two strengths and three flavors
  • Third-party tested with COA
  • Some customers complain about taste

FOCL is a popular CBD company focusing on purity and plant-based wellness. Their products are made with organic hemp and extracted using a CO2 extraction process.

FOCL Premium CBD Drops are made with three simple ingredients: full-spectrum CBD extract, organic MCT oil, and natural flavoring. They’re also vegan and free of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Choose from two strengths — 1000mg and 3,000 mg — and several flavor options, including mint, natural, and orange cream. 

The 1000 mg bottle delivers 33 mg of CBD per 1 mL serving, while the 3,000 mg bottle delivers a potent 100 mg of CBD per serving.

If you’re looking for an option free of THC, FOCL also offers a high-quality broad-spectrum CBD oil.

All FOCL products are tested by a third lab to ensure safety and potency and come with a comprehensive COA that identifies potential pollutants such as mycotoxins, residual solvents, heavy metals, filth, and microbials.

CBDPure Hemp Oil 1000mg

CBDPure

Free Shipping and 15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

If you’re looking for high-quality CBD oil at an affordable price, CBDPure Hemp Oil 1000mg is a good option. 

  • Third-party tested with COA for multiple potential contaminants
  • 90-day money-back guarantee
  • CO2 extraction
  • No flavor options

CBDPure is a grower and producer of high-quality full-spectrum CBD oil derived from organically grown industrial hemp from Colorado and Washington.

CBDPure Hemp Oil 1000 comes in a natural hemp flavor and contains 1000mg of CBD per bottle, in addition to all the cannabinoids, terpenes, and nutrients in organic hemp. In each 1mL serving, you’ll get 16.6mg of CBD.

All products sold by CBDPure are tested by a third party for cannabinoid profiling, microbial contamination, pesticides, and solvents. Lab results are publicly available online for all products.

Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil

Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

As a fan favorite, Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil is a good option for those just starting with hemp extracts.

  • Third-party tested with COA
  • Full-spectrum extracts
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Some users complain of poor customer service

Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil features full-spectrum extracts from hemp grown in the United States. All high-quality CBD products sold by Charlotte’s Web are free of additives and dyes. 

Choose from a 30 mL or 100 mL bottle and four flavors — olive oil, mint chocolate, lemon twist, and orange blossom — to individualize your CBD experience. You’ll get 17 mg of CBD in each 1 mL serving and several other beneficial compounds, including terpenes, essential fatty acids, flavonoids, and phytocannabinoids.

All products are third-party tested, extracted using CO2, and U.S. Hemp Authority Certified. Batch-specific COAs providing information on the compounds present in its products are also publicly available online.

Green Roads Full Spectrum CBD Oil – 1500mg

Green Roads Full Spectrum CBD Oil - 1500mg

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Green Roads Full Spectrum CBD Oil – 1,500 mg is a full-spectrum, pharmacist-formulated CBD oil designed to support your mental and physical well-being. 

  • Pharmacist formulated
  • Full-spectrum oil
  • Third-party tested with COA
  • Limited flavor options
  • Extraction method is unclear

The pharmacist-formulated CBD oils sold by Green Roads are among the most popular, most awarded, and most trusted in the industry.

Green Roads Full Spectrum CBD Oil – 1,500 mg is the company’s strongest product, containing 1,500 mg of CBD per bottle (50 mg of CBD per mL). It also includes a blend of several oils, including sunflower seed oil, hemp seed oil, and MCT oil, that come together for an enhanced user experience. Though no flavor options are available, Green Roads reports this CBD oil has a naturally sweet flavor with a hint of caramel.

While Green Roads reports working with facilities that use various cutting-edge extraction methods, including CO2 extraction, it does not specify other extraction methods used.

All products sold by Green Roads are free of artificial ingredients and have been tested by a third-party label for purity and potency. Batch-specific COAs are available on the company website. 

Pros & Cons Of CBD For Pain

CBD is considered safe and well-tolerated by most individuals. It’s also easy to use, doesn’t require a prescription, and has several clinical trials[16] to support its effectiveness at relieving pain[7], sometimes enabling individuals to cut down on or discontinue their opioid pain medication.

However, there are a few possible side effects and other cons associated with CBD use.

According to a 2017 review[17], the most commonly reported side effects of CBD include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Changes in appetite and weight

Additionally, CBD has the potential to interact with some over-the-counter dietary supplements[18], such as St. John’s Wort. It also may interact with certain prescription medications[18], such as those accompanied by a grapefruit warning. CBD use in pregnant women, breastfeeding women, and children are also not recommended[19].

Though some evidence suggests CBD may have modest pain-relieving benefits, it’s essential to keep in mind that it has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat pain.

How To Take CBD Oil For Pain Relief & Dosage

Since the FDA has not approved CBD products for pain relief treatment, there are no established clinical guidelines for their dosage.

The amount of CBD you should take will depend on your body weight, body chemistry, and the severity of your pain.

The Arthritis Foundation[20] suggests starting with a few milligrams of CBD oil in sublingual form (applied under the tongue) twice daily. If you do not experience relief after one week, increase your dose by that same amount. Remember that putting the oil under your tongue to be absorbed into the bloodstream is a quicker route to achieving desired effects than putting the drops in juice or a beverage and being digested by the gastrointestinal tract.

Continue to increase your dose until you find relief gradually. Once you find your optimal CBD dose, take it regularly to ensure it remains in your bloodstream.

Studies[21] suggest chronic use and doses up to 1,500 mg have been well-tolerated, but every person is different.

How We Choose The Best CBD Oils For Pain

When choosing the best CBD oils for pain, there are several key factors we took into consideration.

Brand Transparency

We looked at each brand, its manufacturing process, customer reviews, and whether the company has been subject to an FDA warning letter[22].

We also looked at whether the company utilizes third-party testing and if they provide proof by sharing COAs on their website.

All products reviewed have gone through rigorous tests for pesticides, heavy metals, and molds and contain less than 0.3% THC — the threshold included in the United States hemp laws[23].

Ingredients

Since you are consuming CBD oils, ingredients are important. We suggest choosing CBD oils made as naturally as possible from hemp grown organically in the United States to reduce the risk of negative health implications. Avoid products made with artificial ingredients, unnecessary fillers, and additives.

Extraction Method

You can extract CBD from hemp using various solvents, including ethanol, methanol, hexane, butane, or ether. However, these extraction methods can leave behind harmful chemical residues.

CO2 extraction[24] is considered a clean way to extract CBD from hemp and tends to produce a superior product.

Final Thought

Some evidence suggests that CBD may help reduce pain, but more research is required. If you are considering using CBD oil for pain, choosing products that have undergone third-party testing is vital.

You’ll also want to speak with your healthcare provider before incorporating CBD into your treatment plan.

Frequently Asked Questions

Does CBD oil work for joint pain?

Several studies suggest that CBD may help alleviate joint pain, but more research is needed.

Is CBD oil or cream better for pain?

CBD capsules or oils[20] are generally recommended over creams to treat pain. Whether creams can actually deliver CBD below the skin is unknown. However, a recent 2020 study showed relief[25] of neuropathic pain using a CBD cream in patients with peripheral neuropathy, indicating that the cream did penetrate the skin’s barrier to provide pain relief.

How long does it take for CBD oil to kick in?

The effects of CBD oil can usually be felt within 15-45 minutes[20], depending on whether it is taken so that it is absorbed directly into the bloodstream or has to pass through the gastrointestinal tract.

How do I use CBD oil for pain? How much should I take?

While there are no official CBD dosing guidelines, experts suggest starting with a small dose of just a few milligrams. You can gradually increase your dose each week until relief is felt.

What is the best CBD strain for pain?

Any of the strains mentioned above are a good starting place to find out what CBD strain is best to relieve your pain. The studies done on CBD and pain have used full-spectrum products, primarily.

What is the best CBD oil for peripheral neuropathy pain?

Full-spectrum CBD oil is the best for peripheral neuropathy pain because it contains all of the natural compounds in hemp, including terpenes, trace cannabinoids, and flavonoids. These compounds work together to boost the effectiveness, producing the “entourage effect.”


+ 25 sources

Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here

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  6. Vučković, S., Srebro, D., Vujović, K.S., Vučetić, Č. and Prostran, M. (2018). Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules. Frontiers in Pharmacology, [online] 9. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.01259.
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  8. Ferber, S.G., Namdar, D., Hen-Shoval, D., Eger, G., Koltai, H., Shoval, G., Shbiro, L. and Weller, A. (2020). The ‘Entourage Effect’: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders. Current Neuropharmacology, [online] 18(2), pp.87–96. doi:10.2174/1570159×17666190903103923.
  9. Kogan, N.M., Lavi, Y., Topping, L.M., Williams, Richard.O., McCann, F.E., Yekhtin, Z., Feldmann, M., Gallily, R. and Mechoulam, R. (2021). Novel CBG Derivatives Can Reduce Inflammation, Pain and Obesity. Molecules, [online] 26(18), p.5601. doi:10.3390/molecules26185601.
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  11. Vigli, D., Cosentino, L., Pellas, M. and De Filippis, B. (2021). Chronic Treatment with Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA) Reduces Thermal Pain Sensitivity in Male Mice and Rescues the Hyperalgesia in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome. Neuroscience, [online] 453, pp.113–123. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.09.041.
  12. Rochfort, S., Isbel, A., Ezernieks, V., Elkins, A., Vincent, D., Deseo, M.A. and Spangenberg, G.C. (2020). Utilisation of Design of Experiments Approach to Optimise Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Medicinal Cannabis. Scientific Reports, [online] 10(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-020-66119-1.
  13. Suez, J., Cohen, Y., Valdés-Mas, R., Mor, U., Dori-Bachash, M., Federici, S., Zmora, N., Leshem, A., Heinemann, M., Linevsky, R., Zur, M., Ben-Zeev Brik, R., Bukimer, A., Eliyahu-Miller, S., Metz, A., Fischbein, R., Sharov, O., Malitsky, S., Itkin, M. and Stettner, N. (2022). Personalized microbiome-driven effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on human glucose tolerance. Cell, [online] 185(18), pp.3307-3328.e19. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2022.07.016.
  14. Ramella, A., Roda, G., Pavlovic, R., Dei Cas, M., Casagni, E., Mosconi, G., Cecati, F., Minghetti, P. and Grizzetti, C. (2020). Impact of Lipid Sources on Quality Traits of Medical Cannabis-Based Oil Preparations. Molecules, [online] 25(13), p.2986. doi:10.3390/molecules25132986.
  15. Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Gugliandolo, A., Silvestro, S., Pollastro, F., Bramanti, P. and Mazzon, E. (2019). Could the Combination of Two Non-Psychotropic Cannabinoids Counteract Neuroinflammation? Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Associated with Cannabigerol. Medicina, [online] 55(11), p.747. doi:10.3390/medicina55110747.
  16. Urits, I., Gress, K., Charipova, K., Habib, K., Lee, D., Lee, C., Jung, J.W., Kassem, H., Cornett, E., Paladini, A., Varrassi, G., Kaye, A.D. and Viswanath, O. (2020). Use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of chronic pain. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, [online] 34(3), pp.463–477. doi:10.1016/j.bpa.2020.06.004.
  17. Iffland, K. and Grotenhermen, F. (2017). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, [online] 2(1), pp.139–154. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034.
  18. PubChem (2022). Cannabidiol. [online] @pubchem. Available at: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Cannabidiol#section=Drug-Drug-Interactions
  19. Anon, (2022). CBD: What You Need to Know. [online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/marijuana/featured-topics/CBD.html
  20. Arthritis.org. (2021). [online] Available at: https://www.arthritis.org/health-wellness/healthy-living/managing-pain/pain-relief-solutions/cbd-for-arthritis-pain
  21. Machado Bergamaschi, M., Helena Costa Queiroz, R., Waldo Zuardi, A. and Alexandre S. Crippa, J. (2011). Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent. Current Drug Safety, [online] 6(4), pp.237–249. doi:10.2174/157488611798280924.
  22. Office (2022). Warning Letters. [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/compliance-actions-and-activities/warning-letters
  23. Abernethy, A. (2019). Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill. [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019
  24. Rochfort, S., Isbel, A., Ezernieks, V., Elkins, A., Vincent, D., Deseo, M.A. and Spangenberg, G.C. (2020). Utilisation of Design of Experiments Approach to Optimise Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Medicinal Cannabis. Scientific Reports, [online] 10(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-020-66119-1.
  25. Xu, D.H., Cullen, B.D., Tang, M. and Fang, Y. (2020). The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, [online] 21(5), pp.390–402. doi:10.2174/1389201020666191202111534.
Lindsey Desoto

Medically reviewed by:

Kathy Shattler

Lindsey DeSoto is a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist based out of Coastal Mississippi. She earned her BSc in Nutrition Sciences from the University of Alabama. Lindsey has a passion for helping others live their healthiest life by translating the latest evidence-based research into easy-to-digest, approachable content.

Medically reviewed by:

Kathy Shattler

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