5 Best Vitamin B Complex Supplements [AU] 2023: Top Brand Reviews
All articles are produced independently. When you click our links for purchasing products, we earn an affiliate commission. Learn more about how we earn revenue by reading our advertise disclaimer.
Ritual Essentials for Women 18+
- Provides vitamins in bioavailable forms.
- University-led clinical trial.
- All ingredients are 100% traceable.
Persona Vitamin B12
- Personalize with other vitamins.
- Most-researched form of vitamin B12.
- High dose.
Life Extension BioActive Complete B Complex
- Full B complex vitamin.
- Uses highly bioavailable forms.
- Reasonably priced.
If you struggle with low energy levels, you might be low on B vitamins—a group of eight essential vitamins you need for making red blood cells, energy production, and brain function.
You need all the B vitamins in the right amounts to stay healthy. Most coexist in the same foods, so if you’re not eating enough B-vitamin-rich foods, you will need to supplement.
5 Best Vitamin B Complex Supplements On The Market In AU (December. 2023)
- Ritual Essentials for Women 18+ – Editor’s choice
- Persona Vitamin B12 – Best Vitamin B12 Complex
- Life Extension BioActive Complete B Complex – Best For Those With Reduced B Vitamin Absorption
- Care/of B-Complex – Best B Complex Without Synthetic Ingredients
- Pure Encapsulations PureNutrients Gummy – Best Vitamin B Complex Gummies
What Is Vitamin B Complex?
A B vitamin complex should provide all eight B vitamins:
- B1, or thiamine.
- B2, or riboflavin.
- B3, or niacin.
- B5, or pantothenic acid.
- B6, or pyridoxine.
- B7, or biotin.
- B9, or folate or folic acid.
- B12, or cobalamin.
But every complex will supply the individual B vitamins in different amounts and different forms. So which is the best vitamin B complex for you?
That depends on which health benefits you’re seeking.
Benefits Of Vitamin B Complex Supplements
Each of the eight B vitamins benefits you in different ways—from promoting healthy metabolism and energy production to supporting organ function, cognitive health, and more.
Here are the main health benefits of supplementing with a B vitamin complex:
Boosts Energy Levels
One main symptom of B vitamin deficiency is fatigue and low energy levels. This can be due to various reasons but the main cause is usually anemia, which is a low red blood cell count.
But anemia isn’t always due to iron deficiency. Megaloblastic anemia occurs due to deficiencies in vitamin B9 or B12. Another type, called pernicious anemia, is an autoimmune disease preventing the absorption of B12 from foods.
So increasing B12 status by supplements or injections can reverse megaloblastic and pernicious anemia and improve energy levels.
Improves Cognitive Function
Vitamin B12 is crucial for cognition because you need it to build the protective covering around nerves and brain neurons. Without adequate B12, your nerves cannot fire properly, and brain signals will not travel efficiently.
Vitamin B12 deficiency increases the risk of cognitive impairment in older age and might also contribute to symptoms of dementia. Studies show that supplementing elderly people with vitamin B12 can reverse a deficiency and improve cognition.
Might Improve Mood
The B vitamins—especially B6, B9, and B12—play an important role in a biochemical process called methylation, which is required to build neurotransmitters that contribute to mood regulation. The main ones are serotonin and dopamine.
Further studies suggest that a combined B6, B9, and B12 supplement can improve the long-term response to antidepressants. In fact, a B12 deficiency might be a reason for treatment-resistant depression.
Reduces Deficiency Risk
Some people are at higher risk of B vitamin deficiencies — especially B9 and B12.
Vegans And Vegetarians
Plant-based foods do not provide active forms of vitamin B12, so those following a vegan or vegetarian diet must supplement B12 to avoid a deficiency.
The absorption of some B vitamins can be hindered in those with gastrointestinal disorders, such as atrophic gastritis and malabsorption syndrome, or after gastrointestinal surgery.
For example, if you have low stomach acid, take medication for acid reflux, such as antacids or proton pump inhibitors, or have a digestive issue, such as inflammatory bowel disease, you might not be able to absorb enough vitamin B12 from foods.
The risk of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency increases as you age.
Pregnant women need more folate and B12 to support the healthy development of the fetus.
Some medications interfere with B vitamin absorption and increase the risk of a deficiency.
For example, Metformin, a medication for type 2 diabetes, is linked to a higher risk of B12 deficiency.
As previously stated, medications for acid reflux can also reduce B12 absorption.
Now we know the benefits of supplementing with B complex vitamins, which is the best supplement to buy? Read on to learn about our top five picks for 2023.
5 Best Vitamin B Complex Supplements In AU 2023
Ritual Essentials is the perfect multivitamin for women on a plant-based diet or suffering from anemia as it provides vitamins B9, B12, and iron in highly bioavailable forms to boost red blood cell synthesis and energy levels.
- Provides vitamins in a highly bioavailable form.
- Supported by a university-led clinical trial.
- All ingredients are 100% traceable.
- Not a real B vitamin complex.
- Only contains B9 and B12.
- Vitamin B12 dose is too low for strict vegans.
Ritual Essentials for Women is a vegan multivitamin with B9 and B12, designed to fill the gaps in the diet of women aged between 18-49. It uses its own patented technology to combine fat-soluble and water-soluble nutrients in one capsule.
Ritual contains nutrients plant-based diets are usually low in, namely vitamin B12, omega-3, vitamin D3, vitamin K2, and iron – all in highly bioavailable forms. They even have a published clinical trial showing that this supplement significantly increases vitamin D and omega-3 levels after just 12 weeks.
The supplement provides vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin, which might lead to higher levels of B12 compared to the synthetic form, cyanocobalamin.
Rituals Essentials is perfect for women suffering from anemia. The most important B vitamins for red blood cell synthesis are vitamins B9 and B12, which, coupled with iron, is the perfect combination to increase red blood cell count.
Other ingredients include cellulose, corn zein, hypromellose, gellan gum, and silica.
Persona Vitamin B12
Persona Vitamin B12 is a tiny pill providing a high dose of 500 micrograms of vitamin B12 as cyanocobalamin, the most researched form of B12.
- Create the perfect B vitamin combination for your needs.
- Most-researched form of vitamin B12.
- Excessive dose of B12.
- Only vitamin B12.
- High in excipients.
Persona creates personalized vitamin sachets designed to fill your own personal nutrition gaps. Although this isn’t a B-complex, you can combine this B12 tablet with the other B vitamins to create your personal B vitamin pack.
This B12 supplement provides 500 micrograms or 20,833% of the Daily Value, which some research says can have minor but reversible side effects. However, supplements need to deliver a much higher dose of B12 than required because it’s harder for the body to absorb it from supplements compared to vitamin B12-rich foods.
Persona uses vitamin B12 as cyanocobalamin, which is the most well-researched form of vitamin B12. It might be more stable and have a longer shelf-life than other forms of B12.
Some argue that natural forms of vitamin B12 such as methylcobalamin are better than synthetic cyanocobalamin, but there’s no strong evidence to back this up. The most recent research suggests they are equally bioavailable.
Other ingredients include vegetable cellulose, vegetable stearic acid, silica, and vegetable magnesium stearate.
Life Extension BioActive Complete B Complex provides all eight B vitamins in highly bioavailable forms at high doses. It’s perfect for those with low B vitamin status due to digestive issues or genetic mutations in MTHFR.
- Full B complex vitamin.
- Uses highly bioavailable forms.
- Reasonably priced.
- Not timed-release.
- Some customers complained of niacin flush.
This B complex provides all eight B vitamins in highly bioavailable, biologically active forms.
For example, vitamin B6 is provided as the most bioactive form: pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. This is the type of B6 needed by the human body.
Similarly, vitamin B12 is provided as methylcobalamin and vitamin B9 as L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate calcium salt, both of which are biologically active forms in the body.
L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate is vital for those with a common genetic variation in the gene, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase — or MTHFR for short. This gene mutation reduces the conversion of synthetic folic acid into methyl folate, the form the body needs, increasing the risk of folate deficiency. Supplementing methyl folate directly bypasses this conversion and can improve folic acid status.
There are also 50 milligrams of para-aminobenzoic acid, or PABA, which is needed for folate synthesis.
However, the high dose of niacin as nicotinic acid without a timed-release capsule increases the risk of niacin flush – a temporary hot red rash. This is a common side effect of taking too much niacin and, although it is harmless, it can be uncomfortable.
Other ingredients include vegetable cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, purified water, and silica.
Care/of B-Complex provides all eight B vitamins in bioavailable forms plus choline, another vitamin important for metabolism and brain health.
- Full B complex vitamin.
- Provides choline.
- Uses highly bioavailable forms.
- No synthetic additives.
- Lower dose of folate.
- Might have a shorter shelf-life.
Care/of B-complex provides all eight B vitamins plus choline – a vitamin B-like nutrient that isn’t officially a B vitamin.
Different types of B12 are useful in different cases of low B12 status, so we like that Care/of includes a combination of the bioactive B12 forms – methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin. However, there’s not much research that adenosylcobalamin is a useful supplemental form of B12; we’d have preferred a combination of methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin.
We also like that this supplement includes choline, an essential nutrient that was originally believed to be a B vitamin. However, choline lost its B vitamin status when it was discovered to be its own unique vitamin. Nevertheless, choline is important for metabolism, brain health, and cognition, and works closely with the B vitamins.
Another plus is that Care/of provides niacin as niacinamide and inositol hexanicotinate, which don’t trigger the flushing side effects of nicotinic acid.
We like that Care/of uses natural ingredients rather than synthetic preservatives and additives. The other ingredients included in this supplement are rice extract, hypromellose, rice hulls, acacia, and sunflower oil. However, the lack of preservatives might mean this supplement has a shorter shelf-life.
Pure Encapsulations PureNutrients Gummy
Pure Encapsulations PureNutrients Gummies are the perfect B vitamin complex and multivitamin for families with young children who don’t like taking capsules.
- Multivitamin providing all B vitamins.
- Gummies are easy to consume.
- Suitable for both adults and children over two.
- One to two grams of sugar per serving.
- Not suitable for vegans.
- Contains stevia.
Pure Encapsulations PureNutrients Gummy is a multivitamin in gummy form flavored with natural fruit flavors. It provides all eight B vitamins plus choline, vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, iodine, zinc, and chromium.
PureNutrients provides most of the B vitamins in highly bioavailable forms: vitamin B12 as methylcobalamin and B9 as L-5- methyltetrahydrofolate.
However, vitamins B5 and B6 are provided as the less bioavailable, synthetic forms: calcium pantothenate and pyridoxine hydrochloride, respectively.
This isn’t always a bad thing. Pyridoxine hydrochloride is the preferred supplemental form because it’s the most stable and easily converted into its active form in the body.
Similarly, calcium pantothenate is more resistant to degradation and humans easily convert it into pantothenic acid.
These gummies include gelatin so are not suitable for vegans. They also contain cane sugar and stevia. Stevia has recently been shown to alter the gut microbiome, but whether this is a harmful or beneficial effect needs further study.
How To Select Vitamin B Complex Supplements
There are so many different B vitamin complex supplements—how do you know which one is best for you? Here are a few points to consider when choosing:
The dosages of B vitamin supplements vary wildly. Your needs will be different from everyone else, so choose a supplement with the correct dosage for you.
Oral vs Sublingual
Rather than being swallowed whole, some B vitamin supplements are designed to dissolve under the tongue. Studies suggest that both forms work well, so the choice is a personal preference.
Some B complex vitamins don’t actually provide all eight B vitamins. If you require certain B vitamins but not others, it might be cheaper to buy a supplement without the vitamins you don’t need.
Methylated vs Non-Methylated
Some B vitamin complexes provide the B vitamins in a methylated form, which is said to be easier to absorb and raise the body’s B vitamin levels more effectively than non-methylated forms. This is particularly important for those with mutations in MTHFR.
Side Effects Of B Complex Vitamin
B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins and hence have very few serious side effects as your body excretes any excess via your urine.
However, there are some common unharmful side effects from taking B vitamins, such as:
- Flushing or a rash due to high-dose niacin.
- Fluorescent urine due to your body excreting excess B vitamins.
- Mild and reversible side effects such as headaches, nausea, diarrhea, tingling, or fatigue may occur with excessive B12 intake.
In rare cases, there can be serious side effects from supplementing very high doses of B vitamins, such as:
- Acute liver toxicity.
- Nerve damage due to vitamin B6 toxicity.
- Hypervitaminosis B12 is associated with renal failure and alcohol use disorder.
How Much Vitamin B Should I Take?
The Adequate Intake, AI, of each B vitamin for adults are:
- B1 (thiamine): 1.1 milligrams for women; 1.2 milligrams for men.
- B2 (riboflavin): 1.1 milligrams for women; 1.3 milligrams for men.
- B3 (niacin): 14 milligrams for women; 16 milligrams for men.
- B5 (pantothenic acid): 5 milligrams.
- B6 (pyridoxine): 1.3 milligrams.
- B7 (biotin): 30 micrograms.
- B9 (folate or folic acid): 400 micrograms.
- B12 (cobalamin): 2.4 micrograms.
B vitamins are essential vitamins important for mental and physical energy, brain function, and nervous system health.
In this article, we reviewed the five best vitamin B complex dietary supplements available for 2023. However, the best vitamin B supplements for you depend on your needs and lifestyle.
Importantly, vegans and older adults should consider supplementing vitamin B12, whilst pregnant women require more of all the B vitamins—especially folic acid. Those with gene mutations in MTHFR should supplement the biologically-active form of vitamin B9, methyl folate.
Frequently Asked Questions
Vitamin B complex supplements are good for those who are not getting enough B vitamins from their diet, especially vegans, vegetarians, pregnant women, older adults, and those with certain genetic variants.
Vitamin B12 is best for vegans and vegetarians and those with pernicious anemia, while a B complex is best for older adults and those with mental health disorders. Methylfolate is especially important for those with genetic mutations in MTHFR.
If you’re not getting enough B vitamins from your diet, it is best to take a B-complex supplement daily. B vitamins are water-soluble and are needed daily since they are not stored in the tissues like fat-soluble vitamins are.
Some B vitamins—especially vitamin B3—have been shown to protect the skin from sun damage and reduce the risk of skin cancer.
+ 39 sources
Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here
- Psara, E., Pentieva, K., Ward, M. and McNulty, H. (2020). Critical review of nutrition, blood pressure and risk of hypertension through the lifecycle: do B vitamins play a role? Biochimie, [online] 173, pp.76–90. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2020.03.016.
- Tardy, A.-L., Pouteau, E., Marquez, D., Yilmaz, C. and Scholey, A. (2020). Vitamins and Minerals for Energy, Fatigue and Cognition: A Narrative Review of the Biochemical and Clinical Evidence. Nutrients, [online] 12(1), p.228. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010228.
- Wang M (2016). Iron Deficiency and Other Types of Anemia in Infants and Children. American family physician, [online] 93(4). Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26926814/
- Green, R. and Datta Mitra, A. (2017). Megaloblastic Anemias. Medical Clinics of North America, [online] 101(2), pp.297–317. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2016.09.013.
- TH, O. (2019). Diagnostic difficulties in pernicious anemia. Discovery medicine, [online] 28(155). Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32053765/
- Kumar, R.R., Singh, L., Thakur, A., Singh, S. and Kumar, B. (2022). Role of Vitamins in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review. CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets, [online] 21(9), pp.766–773. doi:https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527320666211119122150.
- Ueno, A., Hamano, T., Enomoto, S., Shirafuji, N., Nagata, M., Kimura, H., Ikawa, M., Yamamura, O., Yamanaka, D., Ito, T., Kimura, Y., Kuriyama, M. and Nakamoto, Y. (2022). Influences of Vitamin B12 Supplementation on Cognition and Homocysteine in Patients with Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Cognitive Impairment. Nutrients, [online] 14(7), p.1494. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071494.
- Sashindran, V.K., Aggarwal, V. and Khera, A. (2022). Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly population (>60 years) presenting with dementia to outpatient department. Medical Journal Armed Forces India, [online] 78(1), pp.94–98. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mjafi.2020.11.003.
- Kennedy, D.O., Veasey, R., Watson, A., Dodd, F., Jones, E., Maggini, S. and Haskell, C.F. (2010). Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology, [online] 211(1), pp.55–68. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3.
- Lewis, J.E., Tiozzo, E., Melillo, A.B., Leonard, S., Chen, L., Mendez, A., Woolger, J.M. and Konefal, J. (2013). The Effect of Methylated Vitamin B Complex on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Quality of Life in Adults with Depression. ISRN Psychiatry, [online] 2013, pp.1–7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/621453.
- Almeida, O.P., Ford, A.H., Hirani, V., Singh, V., vanBockxmeer, F.M., McCaul, K. and Flicker, L. (2014). B vitamins to enhance treatment response to antidepressants in middle-aged and older adults: results from the B-VITAGE randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, [online] 205(6), pp.450–457. doi:https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.145177.
- Kate, N., Grover, S. and Agarwal, M. (2010). Does B12 deficiency lead to lack of treatment response to conventional antidepressants? Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township)), [online] 7(11), pp.42–4. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3010969/
- Rizzo, G., Laganà, A., Rapisarda, A., La Ferrera, G., Buscema, M., Rossetti, P., Nigro, A., Muscia, V., Valenti, G., Sapia, F., Sarpietro, G., Zigarelli, M. and Vitale, S. (2016). Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation. Nutrients, [online] 8(12), p.767. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8120767.
- Pardo-Cabello, A.J., Manzano-Gamero, V. and Puche-Cañas, E. (2023). Vitamin B12: For more than just the treatment of megaloblastic anemia? Revista Clínica Española (English Edition). [online] doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rceng.2022.11.004.
- Heidelbaugh, J.J. (2013). Proton pump inhibitors and risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency: evidence and clinical implications. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, [online] 4(3), pp.125–133. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098613482484.
- Kjeldby, I.K., Fosnes, G.S., Ligaarden, S.C. and Farup, P.G. (2013). Vitamin B6 deficiency and diseases in elderly people – a study in nursing homes. BMC Geriatrics, [online] 13(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-13-13.
- Finkelstein, J.L., Layden, A.J. and Stover, P.J. (2015). Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health. Advances in Nutrition, [online] 6(5), pp.552–563. doi:https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.008201.
- Reinstatler, L., Qi, Y.P., Williamson, R.S., Garn, J.V. and Oakley, G.P. (2012). Association of Biochemical B12 Deficiency With Metformin Therapy and Vitamin B12 Supplements. Diabetes Care, [online] 35(2), pp.327–333. doi:https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-1582.
- Osburn, S.C., Roberson, P.A., Medler, J.A., Shake, J., Arnold, R.D., Alamdari, N., Bucci, L.R., Vance, A., Sharafi, M., Young, K.C. and Roberts, M.D. (2021). Effects of 12-Week Multivitamin and Omega-3 Supplementation on Micronutrient Levels and Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids in Pre-menopausal Women. Frontiers in Nutrition, [online] 8. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.610382.
- Rogovik, A.L. (2016). Safety Considerations and Potential Interactions of Vitamins: Should Vitamins Be Considered Drugs? – Alexander L Rogovik, Sunita Vohra, Ran D Goldman, 2010. [online] Annals of Pharmacotherapy. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1345/aph.1M238
- Langan RC;Goodbred AJ (2017). Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Recognition and Management. American family physician, [online] 96(6). Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28925645/
- Temova Rakuša, Ž., Roškar, R., Hickey, N. and Geremia, S. (2022). Vitamin B12 in Foods, Food Supplements, and Medicines—A Review of Its Role and Properties with a Focus on Its Stability. Molecules, [online] 28(1), p.240. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010240.
- Czerwonka, M., Szterk, A. and Waszkiewicz-Robak, B. (2014). Vitamin B12 content in raw and cooked beef. Meat Science, [online] 96(3), pp.1371–1375. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.11.022.
- Ind ex ed in Ind ME D A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY Latest Advancement in Methylcobalamin. (2023). Available at: https://drsanjayagrawal.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/TA-23-January-2023-Allign-Colour.pdf
- Bachmann, T. and Rychlik, M. (2018). Synthesis of [13C3]-B6 Vitamers Labelled at Three Consecutive Positions Starting from [13C3]-Propionic Acid. Molecules, [online] 23(9), p.2117. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092117.
- Dean, L. (2016). Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency. [online] Nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK66131/
- Al-Batayneh, K.M., Zoubi, M.S.A., Shehab, M., Al-Trad, B., Bodoor, K., Khateeb, W.A., Aljabali, A.A.A., Hamad, M.A. and Eaton, G. (2018). Association Between MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism and Vitamin B12 Deficiency: A Case-Control Study. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, [online] 37(2), pp.141–147. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/jomb-2017-0051.
- Jacobson, T.A. (2010). A ‘Hot’ Topic in Dyslipidemia Management—‘How to Beat a Flush’: Optimizing Niacin Tolerability to Promote Long-term Treatment Adherence and Coronary Disease Prevention. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, [online] 85(4), pp.365–379. doi:https://doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2009.0535.
- Marsh, E.N.G. and Meléndez, G.D.R. (2012). Adenosylcobalamin enzymes: Theory and experiment begin to converge. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Proteins and Proteomics, [online] 1824(11), pp.1154–1164. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2012.03.012.
- B. Hollenbeck, C. (2012). An Introduction to the Nutrition and Metabolism of Choline. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, [online] 12(2), pp.100–113. doi:https://doi.org/10.2174/187152412800792689.
- Anon, (2021). Doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine hydrochloride. [online] Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35951944/
- Suez, J., Cohen, Y., Valdés-Mas, R., Mor, U., Dori-Bachash, M., Federici, S., Zmora, N., Leshem, A., Heinemann, M., Linevsky, R., Zur, M., Ben-Zeev Brik, R., Bukimer, A., Eliyahu-Miller, S., Metz, A., Fischbein, R., Sharov, O., Malitsky, S., Itkin, M. and Stettner, N. (2022). Personalized microbiome-driven effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on human glucose tolerance. Cell, [online] 185(18), pp.3307-3328.e19. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2022.07.016.
- Del Bo’, C., Riso, P., Gardana, C., Brusamolino, A., Battezzati, A. and Ciappellano, S. (2019). Effect of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B12 on cobalamin nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition, [online] 38(2), pp.575–583. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.008.
- Maruf, A.A., Poweleit, E.A., Brown, L.C., Strawn, J.R. and Bousman, C.A. (2021). Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of L-Methylfolate Augmentation in Depressive Disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry, [online] 55(03), pp.139–147. doi:https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1681-2047.
- ISHIGURO, I. (1956). STUDIES ON RIBOFLAVIN-LIKE FLUORESCENT SUBSTANCES IN HUMAN URINE. THE JOURNAL OF VITAMINOLOGY, [online] 2(4), pp.264–272. doi:https://doi.org/10.5925/jnsv1954.2.264.
- Mayo Clinic. (2021). Vitamin B-12. [online] Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-b12/art-20363663
- Ellsworth, M.A., Anderson, K.R., Hall, D.J., Freese, D.K. and Lloyd, R.M. (2014). Acute Liver Failure Secondary to Niacin Toxicity. Case Reports in Pediatrics, [online] 2014, pp.1–3. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/692530.
- Vrolijk, M.F., Opperhuizen, A., Jansen, E.H.J.M., Hageman, G.J., Bast, A. and Haenen, G.R.M.M. (2017). The vitamin B6 paradox: Supplementation with high concentrations of pyridoxine leads to decreased vitamin B6 function. Toxicology in Vitro, [online] 44, pp.206–212. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.07.009.
- Snaidr, V.A., Damian, D.L. and Halliday, G.M. (2019). Nicotinamide for photoprotection and skin cancer chemoprevention: A review of efficacy and safety. Experimental Dermatology, [online] 28, pp.15–22. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/exd.13819.