01:12pm Wednesday 20 September 2017

Naturally produced protein could boost brain repair

The protein, called Betacellulin (BTC), was found to boost brain regeneration in mice by stimulating the organ’s stem cells to multiply and form new nerve cells. The findings, published in the journal PNAS, suggest that BTC could enhance future regenerative therapies for conditions such as stroke, traumatic brain injury and dementia.

Although most nerve cells (neurons) in the adult brain are formed in the womb and soon after birth, new neurons continue to be generated throughout life by stem cells. These neural stem cells are housed in two small ‘niches’ of the brain and supply new neurons to the olfactory bulb, responsible for our sense of smell, and the hippocampus, which is involved in forming memories and learning.

The niches produce a range of signals that control how fast the stem cells divide and the type of cell they become. Stem cells in these areas normally produce neurons, but in response to a brain injury such as stroke they tend to produce more so-called glial cells, leading to the formation of scar tissue.

Dr Robin Lovell-Badge from the MRC’s National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), who led the research, said:

“The stem cell niches in the brain are not fully understood, but it appears that many factors act in concert to control the fate of the stem cells. We believe these factors are finely balanced to control precisely the numbers of new neurons that are made to match demand in a variety of normal circumstances.

“But in trauma or disease, the stem cells either can’t cope with the increased demand, or they prioritise damage control at the expense of long-term repair. We hope that our new findings can add to the arsenal of exciting approaches coming out of stem cell biology that might eventually lead to better treatments for damaged brains.”

 

The researchers studied the effects of BTC, which is produced by cells in the blood vessels within the stem cell niches, on the rate of neuron formation in mice. They found that BTC signals to both the stem cells and to dividing cells called neuroblasts, triggering their proliferation.

When extra Betacellulin was given to the mice, there was a significant increase in both stem cells and neuroblasts in their brains, leading to the formation of many new neurons. In contrast, when mice were given an antibody that blocks BTC activity the production of new neurons was suppressed.

As BTC leads to the production of new neurons, rather than glial cells, this protein could improve the effectiveness of regenerative medicine treatments aimed at repairing damage to the brain.

Professor Jim Smith, Director of the NIMR, said:

“Regenerative medicine has the potential to unlock new treatments for many human diseases that currently have no effective cures. This study is an important step towards our goal of moving beyond the replacement of tissues and organs to the exploitation of the intrinsic repair and regenerative potential of the human body.”

This work is still far from the clinic as further experiments are needed to explain the normal role of BTC in the brain and to explore in animals the effects of BTC on damaged brains alone, or together with transplanted neural stem cells.

Notes to editors

Contact Hannah Isom,

Senior press officer, Medical Research Council

T: 0207 395 2345 (out of hours: 07818 428 297).

E: press.office@headoffice.mrc.ac.uk

 

  • The research, “Betacellulin promotes cell proliferation in the neural stem cell niche and stimulates neurogenesis” by Maria-Victoria Gomez-Gaviro et al, is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • For almost 100 years the Medical Research Council has improved the health of people in the UK and around the world by supporting the highest quality science. The MRC invests in world-class scientists. It has produced 29 Nobel Prize winners and sustains a flourishing environment for internationally recognised research. The MRC focuses on making an impact and provides the financial muscle and scientific expertise behind medical breakthroughs, including one of the first antibiotics penicillin, the structure of DNA and the lethal link between smoking and cancer. Today MRC funded scientists tackle research into the major health challenges of the 21st century. www.mrc.ac.uk

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