For many years, researchers have been investigating whether there are any associations between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and lifestyle choices such as smoking and coffee and alcohol consumption. In a review published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, the literature concerning alcohol consumption presents conflicting information.
A systematic review of the relevant literature from 2000-2014, from observational studies, found little evidence for either a positive or negative effect on PD risk from alcohol consumption. When weak associations were observed in some reports, the authors found that the studies were at greater risk of selection and recall bias, which could compromise the effects found.
Sixteen articles that met the criteria for inclusion were identified. All were primary research articles, published in English in peer-reviewed journals. These studies had to include a comparison or control group consisting of individuals without PD, report a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjust at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Research that measured alcohol exposure only as drinker versus non-drinker were excluded.
“This review determined several possible methodological weaknesses that could explain the varying and often conflicting results of studies reporting lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee/tea and alcohol consumption contributing to PD risk,” explained lead investigator Silvana Bettiol, PhD, MPH, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia. “These included selection or self-selection of controls, difficulties in retrospective assessment of alcohol consumption, differences in the lengths of follow-up periods, and inconsistent definitions of drinkers and non-drinkers.”
In addition, in studies in which alcohol consumption and PD incidence were accurately measured over time, only non-significant associations were found, further supporting the argument that various limitations and biases affected many of the studies.
“This study highlights the need for more prospective studies investigating the relationship between alcohol and PD of adequate sample size. Improvements to reporting of studies by investigators particularly with respect to sample size and power would help others interpret the epidemiological significance of any findings,” concluded Dr. Bettiol. In summary, “most of the studies proved to be preliminary and improving statistical power to detect joint effects was encouraged.”
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NOTES FOR EDITORS
“Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings” by Silvana S. Bettiol, Tanith C. Rose, Clarissa J. Hughes and Lesley A. Smith. (DOI 10.3233/JPD-150533), Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, Volume 5, Issue 3 (2015).
For additional information contact Daphne Watrin, IOS Press, at +31 20 688 3355, firstname.lastname@example.org. This article is also freely available at http://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-parkinsons-disease/jpd150533. Journalists wishing to interview Dr. Silvana S. Bettiol may contact her directly at +61 3 6226 4826 or S.Bettiol@utas.edu.au.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Silvana S. Bettiol
School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Tanith C. Rose
Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England
Clarissa J. Hughes
School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Lesley A. Smith
Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England
ABOUT THE JOURNAL OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE (JPD)
Launched in 2011 the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease is dedicated to providing an open forum for original research in basic science, translational research and clinical medicine that will expedite our fundamental understanding and improve treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The journal is international and multidisciplinary and aims to promote progress in the epidemiology, etiology, genetics, molecular correlates, pathogenesis, pharmacology, psychology, diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. It publishes research reports, reviews, short communications, and letters-to-the-editor and offers very rapid publication and an affordable open access option.
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