The statistics are startling: 87 percent of those diagnosed with lung cancer will die within two years of their diagnosis since the disease typically is discovered after it has progressed, according to Nasser Hanna, M.D., an oncologist and a researcher with the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center.
In the United States, 220,520 people will be diagnosed with lung cancer this year, according to the American Cancer Society. And 157,300 will die from the disease in 2010, including 4,000 Hoosiers. Indiana is disproportionately affected; Hoosiers have the second-highest smoking rate in the nation.
Overall, Dr. Hanna said lung cancer will kill more people than colorectal, breast and prostate cancer — the second-, third-, and fourth-leading cause of cancer deaths — combined.
The majority of people – 90 percent – develop lung cancer due to smoking.
“Smoking doesn’t rob you of just a few years of life,” Dr. Hanna said. “You lose, on average, 15 to 25 years of life; you lose decades of life.”
Stopping smoking or never smoking are the best defenses against developing the disease. But since 4,000 teens light up their first cigarette every day, Dr. Hanna stresses the importance of tobacco control, primarily through youth education. He is actively involved in having open and frank discussions with youth in Indiana schools as well as offering information on how to quit smoking and how to overcome peer pressure.
But non-smokers are at risk, too. They can develop lung cancer due to second-hand smoke from tobacco products or from radon, asbestos, welding fumes, coal tar fumes or diesel exhaust.
What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer?
Unfortunately, the warning signs don’t usually appear during the early stages of the disease. “A person’s first sign might be a symptom of advanced disease,” Dr. Hanna said.
According to Dr. Hanna, who is an associate professor of medicine at the Indiana University School of Medicine, the following are symptoms of lung cancer:
- A persistent cough
- Coughing up blood
- Shortness of breath
- Hoarse voice
Symptoms of advanced disease include:
- A new area of pain
- Unintended weight loss
- Diminished appetite
How is lung cancer discovered?
Unfortunately, current screenings – a chest X-ray, for example – do not find lung cancer early enough to improve a person’s chance for a cure. Still, until an effective screening tool becomes the standard that is widely accepted, smokers and former smokers are especially encouraged to talk with their doctors about their risks and to discuss current screening options.
To learn more
The Thoracic Oncology Program of the IU Simon Cancer Center brings leading-edge care to men and women with cancers of the chest, including lung, esophagus, pleura, chest wall, and mediastinum. To learn more about the Thoracic Oncology Program, visit www.cancer.iu.edu/thoracic/.