Genetic analysis for certain childhood brain tumors soon a standard-of-care?
An international team of researchers from the Hopp Children’s Cancer Center at the NCT Heidelberg (KiTZ), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) together with colleagues at the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis and the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto has summarized hereditary gene defects which can trigger the development of certain malignant brain tumors (medulloblastoma). From their findings, the team has derived recommendations for routine genetic screening in medulloblastoma patients.
The “Hopp Children’s Cancer Center at the NCT Heidelberg” (KiTZ) is a joint initiative of Heidelberg University Hospital and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ).
Medulloblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of the cerebellum and occurs predominantly in children. Scientists believe that in many cases hereditary gene defects trigger the development of this malignant disease. However, there are no standards for routine genetic screening of patients, nor are there guidelines and a corresponding nationwide infrastructure for genetic counseling of affected families.
Scientists have now been able to characterize medulloblastoma more accurately and to derive recommendations for genetic testing based on analysis of 1022 patients with medulloblastoma. “We analyzed genes that have been previously implicated in predisposition to any type of pediatric and adult cancer”, says Sebastian Waszak from the EMBL Heidelberg who is one of the study’s lead authors. It turned out that six genes were also frequently affected by genetic alterations in patients with medulloblastoma.
Considering the six significantly enriched genes, about five percent of patients had an increased risk of cancer. Taking into account all cancer risk genes, about eleven percent of the patients had an increased cancer risk. Looking at a particular tumor subgroup, the so called “SHH-activated medulloblastoma”, even 20 percent were identified to harbour a genetic predisposition to cancer.
These predisposing mutations occur in every single cell of the patient and can be also passed on to offspring. “Mutations of this kind often indicate a familial predisposition to cancer and therefore place special demands on the treatment of patients and the counseling of families”, said Paul Northcott from the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, who shares the lead authorship. The results are particularly important because both, materials from previous studies and patient data from four current or recently completed clinical trials were included in the analysis.
Based on these findings and other tumor features, the scientists developed criteria for routine genetic screening. “Hereditary disease factors usually have a significant impact on the whole family of the patient, We want to make genetic analysis available as a standard of care for patients with specific medulloblastoma”, says Stefan Pfister, KiTZ director, scientist at the German Cancer Research Center, and senior physician at the Heidelberg University Hospital. To make this possible, Stefan Pfister and Christian Kratz from the Hannover Medical School have created a registry for patients with a hereditary cancer predisposition and a website that contains information for patients, families, and physicians (www.krebs-praedisposition.de).
The project was significantly supported by the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), the German Cancer Aid, the German Childhood Cancer Foundation, and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
Waszak et al. Spectrum and prevalence of genetic predisposition in medulloblastoma: a retrospective genetic study and prospective validation in a clinical trial cohort. The Lancet Oncology. Online publication 10th May 2018; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30242-0
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Picture Caption: MRT picture of a medulloblastoma
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The German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ)
The German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) with its more than 3,000 employees is the largest biomedical research institute in Germany. At DKFZ, more than 1,000 scientists investigate how cancer develops, identify cancer risk factors and endeavor to find new strategies to prevent people from getting cancer. They develop novel approaches to make tumor diagnosis more precise and treatment of cancer patients more successful. The staff of the Cancer Information Service (KID) offers information about the widespread disease of cancer for patients, their families, and the general public. Jointly with Heidelberg University Hospital, DKFZ has established the National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg, where promising approaches from cancer research are translated into the clinic. In the German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), one of six German Centers for Health Research, DKFZ maintains translational centers at seven university partnering sites. Combining excellent university hospitals with high-profile research at a Helmholtz Center is an important contribution to improving the chances of cancer patients. DKFZ is a member of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centers, with ninety percent of its funding coming from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the remaining ten percent from the State of Baden-Württemberg.
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Internationally recognized patient care, research, and teaching
Heidelberg University Hospital is one of the largest and most prestigious medical centers in Germany. The Medical Faculty of Heidelberg University belongs to the internationally most renowned biomedical research institutions in Europe. Both institutions have the common goal of developing new therapies and implementing them rapidly for patients. With about 13,000 employees, training and qualification is an important issue. Every year, around 65,000 patients are treated on an inpatient basis, 56,000 cases on a day patient basis and more than 1,000,000 cases on an outpatient basis in more than 50 clinics and departments with almost 2,000 beds. Jointly with the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and German Cancer Aid, Heidelberg University Hospital has established the National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg, where promising approaches from cancer research are translated into the clinic. Currently, about 3,700 future physicians are studying in Heidelberg; the reform Heidelberg Curriculum Medicinale (HeiCuMed) is one of the top medical training programs in Germany. www.klinikum.uni-heidelberg.de
The „Hopp Children’s Cancer Center at the NCT Heidelberg” (KiTZ)
The „Hopp Children’s Cancer Center at the NCT Heidelberg” (KiTZ) is a joint institution of the Heidelberg University Hospital and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). As a therapy and research center for oncologic and hematologic diseases in children and adolescents, the KiTZ is committed to scientifically exploring the biology of childhood cancer and to closely linking promising research approaches with patient care– from diagnosis to treatment and aftercare. Children suffering from cancer, especially those with no established therapy options, are given an individual therapy plan in the KiTZ, which is created by interdisciplinary expert groups in so-called tumor boards. Many young patients can participate in clinical trials which ensures access to new therapy options. Thus, the KiTZ is a pioneering institution for transferring research knowledge from the laboratory to the clinic.