“Few studies have focused on long-term outcomes for patients diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. In this study, we wanted to assess the health outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD, focusing on obesity rates and Body Mass Index,” said lead author Francisco Xavier Castellanos, MD, Brooke and Daniel Neidich Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Child Study Center at NYU Langone. “Our results found that even when you control for other factors often associated with increased obesity rates such as socioeconomic status, men diagnosed with ADHD were at a significantly higher risk to suffer from high BMI and obesity as adults.”
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders, often diagnosed in childhood and lasting into adulthood. People with ADHD typically have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors and tend to be overly active. ADHD has an estimated worldwide prevalence of five percent, with men more likely to be diagnosed than women.
The prospective study included 207 white men diagnosed with ADHD at an average age of 8 and a comparison group of 178 men not diagnosed with childhood ADHD, who were matched for race, age, residence and social class. The average age at follow up was 41 years old. The study was designed to compare Body Mass Index (BMI) and obesity rates in grown men with and without childhood ADHD.
Results showed that, on average, men with childhood ADHD had significantly higher BMI (30.1 vs. 27.6) and obesity rates (41.1 percent vs. 21.6 percent) than men without childhood ADHD.
“The results of the study are concerning but not surprising to those who treat patients with ADHD. Lack of impulse control and poor planning skills are symptoms often associated with the condition and can lead to poor food choices and irregular eating habits,” noted Dr. Castellanos. “This study emphasizes that children diagnosed with ADHD need to be monitored for long-term risk of obesity and taught healthy eating habits as they become teenagers and adults.”
The research was supported by grants MH-18579 and T32 MH-067763 from the National Institute of Mental Health, grant DA-16979 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and grant PIOF-253103 from the European Commission.
Co-authors of the study include Salvatore Mannuzza, PhD (retired); Samuele Cortese, MD, PhD, of the Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience and Verona University, Italy; Erika Proal, PhD, of the Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience and Neuroingenia, Mexico; Rachel G. Klein, PhD, and Maria A. Ramos Olazagasti, PhD, of the Child Study Center at NYU Langone Medical Center.
The Child Study Center at NYU Langone Medical Center is a recognized leader in the treatment of child psychiatric disorders through scientific practice, research and education. The CSC offers a wide range of mental health services for children, adolescents, young adults and families and our experts specialize in the fields of child, adolescent and adult psychiatry, clinical psychology, neuropsychology, social work, pediatric neurology and education and academic achievement. The center recently moved to its new location at One Park Ave. in Manhattan, and has facilities in New Jersey and on Long Island. For more information, please visit the Child Study Center website or call (212) 263-6622.