With at least 1.2 million women and 784,000 men experiencing domestic violence and abuse in England and Wales each year, the negative effect on families and children can be far-reaching. Childhood exposure to domestic violence and abuse can result in long-term behavioural, mental health and education problems.
However, new research has shown that lack of clear guidance and training on the interface between domestic violence and child safeguarding has led to uncertainty about how such cases should be managed.
Researchers from the University of Bristol will share their findings with health practitioners and researchers at the South West Society for Academic Primary Care (SW SAPC) meeting today [07 March].
Preliminary results from the two-and-a-half year RESPONDS (Researching Education to Strengthen Primary care ON Domestic violence and Safeguarding) project funded by the Department of Health shows that there is uncertainty among primary healthcare professionals about the appropriate management of families experiencing domestic violence.
Interviews were conducted with 42 GPs, 12 practice nurses and 15 practice managers across six sites in England. Scenarios were used to explore how practitioners identified and responded to cases of domestic violence where children were involved.
Conversations about domestic violence and child safeguarding were described as ‘difficult’ and many respondents were unsure of thresholds for referral to social services. Respondents’ reactions to the same scenarios were substantially different, highlighting a lack of clear guidance and training.
Primary care practitioners had little knowledge of local domestic violence services and few had direct communication with children’s social services.
The study also found practitioners’ face-to-face communication with children and young people was limited. However, they appeared ready to talk to mothers about domestic violence and some suggested that they would attempt to engage with abusive fathers.
Professor Gene Feder, Professor of Primary Care at the University of Bristol, led the research. He said: “Domestic violence poses a major challenge to public health, social care and health care services, yet it often goes unrecognised by professionals in those sectors. Being exposed to it can have a damaging effect on children, so the role of primary healthcare professionals is vital.”
Dr Eszter Szilassy, from Bristol University’s School of Social and Community Medicine, added: “Our study showed that many primary care clinicians are unsure how to support the parent experiencing abuse whilst protecting their safety and autonomy, maintaining confidentiality, and ensuring the safety of their children.
“The lack of clear guidance and training on the interface between domestic violence and child safeguarding is resulting in a variation of care and uncertainty in managing these families. This major gap in policy means that opportunities to support women and children experiencing domestic violence are being missed.”
The findings of the RESPONDS study have been used to help develop a training programme which is currently being piloted and evaluated in two sites in England.
The training aims to increase professionals’ confidence and skills in managing these complex issues and to improve their understanding and links with local domestic violence and child protection services.
The RESPONDS study was carried out by the Universities of Bristol, Central Lancashire, Manchester and Melbourne. It was funded by the Department of Health Policy Research Programme.
About the Centre of Academic Primary Care
The Centre for Academic Primary Care (CAPC) is one of the leading centres in the UK which form the NIHR School for Primary Care Research. Within the University of Bristol, CAPC is an integral part of the School of Social and Community Medicine, which is an internationally recognised centre of excellence for research and teaching in population health sciences.
CAPC conducts high quality research within a number of themes relating to primary care and general practice and provide teaching throughout the medical undergraduate curriculum. The research and teaching is characterised by a multidisciplinary approach, as staff include academic health professionals, (GPs and nurses), statisticians, social scientists, health economists, and support staff.
About the Society for Academic Primary Care
The Society of Academic Primary Care (SAPC) is made up of researchers, educators and practitioners from a range of disciplines who share a commitment to the development and delivery of primary care. SAPC works closely with stakeholders from across the primary care community to achieve its goal of advancing primary care through education and research.
This report is independent research commissioned and funded by the Department of Health Policy Research Programme (Bridging the Knowledge and Practice Gap between Domestic Violence and Child Safeguarding: Developing Policy and Training for General Practice, 115/0003). The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Department of Health.