This article is reviewed by a team of registered dietitians and medical doctors with extensive, practical clinical and public health experience.
Best Nootropics 2022 – Smart Drugs & Brain Supplements
All articles are produced independently. When you click our links for purchasing products, we earn an affiliate commission. Learn more about how we earn revenue by reading our advertise disclaimer.
- Helps with depression
- Helps combating excessive sleepiness
- Enhances memory, and boosts mood
- No stimulants like caffeine
- 60-day money-back guarantee
- Increase cognitive function
60% Off When Buying In Bulk
Mind Lab Pro
- Popular with athletes, students and senior citizens.
- 100% money-back guarantee
- 11 mind-boosting ingredients
Nootropic stacks are dietary supplements designed to boost your brain function and mental performance. The best nootropics stack contains ingredients that offer cognitive benefits such as improved memory recall, productivity, learning focus, and overall brain function.
We often take for granted the enormous capabilities of the brain. From what we do to where in the world we are located, each brain cell plays a vital role in fulfilling responsibilities with complete sets of tools—but not if you’re having trouble focusing!
Nootropics can help give those sluggish neurons some fuel, so they’re ready and able enough every day. But which ones are we talking about?
We’ve researched all possible options available on the best nootropics in the market today before recommending any particular product because there are too many smart pills claiming the “best” status out there, and here are the five that prove to be the best.
Best Nootropics on the market in (December. 2022)
- Modafinil – Best Performance
- Noocube – Strongest Nootropic Supplement
- Mind Lab Pro – Best Nootropic Supplement to Eradicate Brain Fog
- Qualia Mind – Best Nootropic to Enhance Focus
- Performance Lab Mind – Best Nootropic to Boost Mental
Nootropics For Your Brain
The human brain is a complex, multifaceted organ that has posed significant challenges in understanding how Nootropics work. Nootropics, natural or synthetic supplements, improve brain function and make the human brain healthier.
They increase blood circulation in the head by increasing nutrients delivery and oxygen flow throughout these vital organs, making us more productive. Nootropics and smart drugs also boost cell-to-cell communication and nourish compounds in the brain while removing destructive toxins.
A lack of eradication of these toxins can lead to increased cholesterol levels that clog up your arteries. Still, Nootropics found ways to help the body become better, starting with the brain.
Instead, the brain opts for calmness at an appropriate time. And this is why nootropics do wonders towards preserving cognitive function long term.
The Line Up At A Glance
- It helps with depression.
- It helps with combating excessive sleepiness and helps you focus and stay awake.
- The product helps to maintain cognitive performance, enhances memory, and boosts mood.
Strongest Nootropic Supplement
- The products do not have stimulants like caffeine.
- The brand offers a 60-day money-back guarantee.
- It is an excellent remedy to help one increase their cognitive function.
60% Off When Buying In Bulk
Best for Eradicate Brain Fog
- Professionals like athletes, students, and senior citizens love it.
- The brand offers a 100% money-back guarantee.
- They have 11 mind-boosting ingredients.
Best Nootropic to Enhance Focus
- The products are 100% vegan and gluten-free.
- The brand offers a 100-day money-back guarantee.
- The formula boosts energy, brain clarity, concentration, creativity, and memory.
15% Off Coupon: 15INSAVINGS
Best Nootropic to Boost Mental
- The formula contains no caffeine, synthetic additives and is non-GMO.
- The product is perfect for memory enhancing.
- The company offers fast and free shipping.
5 Best Nootropics Supplement Stacks & Smart Drugs
Modafinil is a powerful wakefulness-promoting agent that can help you to stay awake when your body needs sleep.
- Effective in treating sleeping disorders
- Minor side effects but managable
- Low potential of abusing
- The Modafinil prescription is expensive.
- The long-term effects of using Modafinil are unclear.
Modafinil tablets are used to treat excessive daytime naps and shift work disorders, which causes overwhelming drowsiness at other times during the day than those scheduled for sleeping hours. Also, when you have sleep deprivation while you still have to work.
Modafinil is a psychostimulant that is primarily used for treating narcolepsy and shift work disorders. It has also been found helpful when people are excessively sleepy due to obstructive sleep apnea or another medical issue like multiple sclerosis—its effectiveness depends on what kind of disease you have first!
Two racemic versions (Modalert and armodafinil) have been repurposed in psychiatry to treat resistant depression, bipolar disorder, and depression.
For people who suffer from obstructive sleep apnea, it is recommended that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) be used before considering Modafinil to help with daytime fatigue.
The European Medicine Agency has recommended new patient prescriptions only for those suffering from narcolepsy due to being extremely sleepy during the daytime.
Noocube is a nootropic stack that will improve your memory, mental processing speed, and focus. Whether you are a professional or a student, Noocubes help the mind perform at its best.
- Natural ingredients
- Clear scientific evidence of their formula
- No known side effects.
- Free shipping worldwide
- The company is not forthcoming about what the ingredients do.
Noocube’s patented formula, combining seven powerful ingredients into a single brain-boosting drink, is designed to improve both your cognitive function and memory within just 30 minutes of ingestion.
Noocubes has a 60-day money-back guarantee allowing you to try it virtually risk-free! The nootropic stack also comes with free shipping when a one-month supply is purchased for all customers worldwide.
Noocubes are a new type of brain therapy that can improve your cognitive function, enhance concentration and mental energy. The NooCube is said to have many benefits for the human body, including an increase in short-term memory capacity and enhanced creativity when it comes time for innovation or problem-solving.
Mind Lab Pro
Mind Lab Pro is a brain supplement that can improve your memory, focus, and other mental functions. The product is effective at enhancing cognitive performance in adults and boosting motivation levels when trying times arise.
- All-natural without synthetics
- Improve brain function, health, and stress resistance for all ages.
- Third-party tested.
- Available worldwide
- Does not stack well with other nootropics
- A bit costly
Mind Lab Pro is a nootropic supplement made by Opti-Nutra. This company has been around for years, and their product comes from good stock, after refining over time, making it better than before.
You can only buy this on the specific site of Mind Lab Pro. One container will last you about 30 days when taken once per day at breakfast. It also comes with some other benefits, like having minimal side effects in most cases. There are also free shipping offers depending on how much your order.
Qualia Mind is a cognitive-enhancement supplement that aims to work on your brain’s health, and not just with the usual benefits you get from taking smart drugs. It has 28 ingredients in total! This product promises increased focus & concentration as well as better mood stability.
- Boost brainpower, eradicates brain fog
- Enhances memory, creativity, and concentration
- All-natural with no synthetic additives
- Offers a money-back guarantee
- Requires 7 pills per dosage
- High price for only 22-day dosage
The Neurohacker Collection produces Qualia Mind. The company has funded a study on its effectiveness, which can be viewed on their site! This brain supplement seems to have minimal side effects and offers a 100-day back refund if you don’t find it compelling enough for your needs.
However, note: The return window only applies for those who’ve made their first order—after which point all sales are final.
Performance Lab Mind
Performance Lab Mind is the perfect supplement for anyone who requires dynamic brainpower. It’s been crafted with intentions of nourishing and restoring your mental health in order for long-term cognitive well-being, protecting against burnout or stress while boosting performance during working hours.
- Restore the brain’s natural chemicals
- The formula is stimulant-free
- Best nootropic in the market to boost memory retention
- Fast and free shipping
- Best to take with empty stomach
Performance Lab Mind is one of many unique cognitive enhancers that help you make the most of your brain’s energy, focus, and motivation. Whether studying hard before an exam or tackling challenging projects at work, a Performance Lab Mind supplement can give you an edge in any situation.
Performance Lab Mind supplement contains potent ingredients to improve mental performance. These nootropics work together synergistically for users to optimize cognitive function, retain memories better and recover from physical activity or stress quicker.
The power behind this supplement isn’t just psychological but also physical due to its unique ingredients. These components support recovery from stress & pressure by restoring chemicals depleted during intense effort—all while giving users the mental agility they need when performing under high standards without feeling too exhausted afterward.
Best Nootropics Substances
Lion’s Mane Mushroom Extract
Lion’s Mane Mushroom Extract is a traditional medicine said to help grow new brain cells. The suggested mechanism for this product’s action is due to the compounds found in its extracts.
They are effective in causing your body to produce more nerve growth hormones which cause faster and better functioning brains with increased cognition; all these are good traits if you want an intelligent mind.
Lion’s mane works well when stacked or used alongside other nootropics like Ashwagandha, Maritime, Pine Bark Extract, and Tyrosine.
If you’re under a lot of stress or have an important deadline coming up fast, tyrosine can help. It’s vital in producing other chemicals like dopamine and epinephrine (known as “happiness neurotransmitters”).
Tyrosine also helps with anxiety which is helpful for those who suffer from it—mainly because they might not know where else to turn if their usual treatments don’t work out well enough anymore! Combined with citicoline, ashwagandha & Rhodiola Rosea, they are an excellent nootropic stack.
Citicoline is the most popular nootropic in existence, but it’s not just for brains. Citicoline can be converted into uridine and choline, which are both cognitive enhancing supplements.
Furthermore, this excellent chemical has an additional ability: increasing your brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. It does this by converting them into acetylcholine with tyrosine or phosphatidylserines as catalysts. This is another excellent way of boosting mental and physical performance capabilities while relaxing muscles simultaneously.
Ashwagandha has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. The herb is thought to be adaptogenic, which means that it helps maintain your body’s homeostasis or balance by acting like an over-the-counter remedy. This is because of its calming properties on stress hormones such as cortisol levels in your system.
At the same time, it also provides cognitive benefits when taken alongside tyrosine supplements like Lion Hearts Mushroom Extract.
A recent study showed how Ashgwandha might help reduce anxiety symptoms among healthy people. Those taking this herbal supplement reported feeling less tense in their bodies.
Maritime Pine Bark Extract
Maritime pine bark extract is an antioxidant, which means that it fights free radicals. Too many free radicals cause all kinds of damage, including cancer, if left unchecked for too long. Luckily there’s more than enough protection against this happening thanks to Maritime Pine Bark containing natural chemicals such as quercetin
Maritime pines can be used alone or with other ingredients like citicoline (which increases mental alertness), tyrosine and the amounts may vary according to your needs.
DHA is a type of omega-3 fatty acid found all over your body, especially in the brain. It helps alleviate depression and anxiety; it also keeps moods steady for those who take this supplement.
You may get DHA from foods rich with them, like fatty fish, or by taking dietary supplements such as maritime pine bark extract.
Ginkgo Biloba is a prevalent ingredient found in many stacks, but it has been used explicitly with older adults. Ginkgos are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which help the body and the mind.
When combined with citicoline or Bacopa monnieri, they help increase cardiovascular health by opening up blood vessels so your brain can be better supplied.
A nootropic known as a straight brain-booster, Bacopa monnieri, can improve memory and process information faster. It does this by increasing the number of dendrites you have, essentially making your neurons more interconnected within themselves so that transferred memories are easier to remember than ever before—an effect augmented with bacosides found only in extracts rich with them!
This supplement has been shown effective for older adults struggling to remember recent events and those just getting started when seeking educational degrees who find their study habits lacking enough energy or motivation. Pairing up against other popular Nootropics like citicoline and phosphatidylserine may be a good idea.
Creatine monohydrate is one of the most valuable supplements for building muscle. It also helps stimulate brain cell regeneration, increasing cellular energy and strength.
Frequently found in body-building supplements because it has been shown to improve energy, motivation, among other things.
In general, creatine may lead you to have an easier time remembering short-term memories when compared with individuals who do not supplement their diet regularly or at all.
Frequently found in body-building supplements because it has been shown to improve reasoning skills, among other things. Creatine may lead you to have an easier time remembering short-term memories when compared with individuals who do not supplement their diet regularly or at all.
Rhodiola Rosea, also known as the “adaptogen of Russia,” improves mental performance and cognitive function. It works by dealing with depression and anxiety while helping fight mental fatigue. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, which help your brain to heal up. This may be due to stress from working hard in tasks requiring memory or processing speed.
Caffeine is a powerful drug that will give you the energy to finish your work. But in large doses, it can cause difficulty focusing and intense withdrawal symptoms. It’s also found in many nootropic blends, making its usability advantageous over other supplements with similar effects, such as Adderall.
Coffee has always been your favorite way of starting each day – some people might even call them “powerhouses.” But did you know caffeine shots aren’t just reserved for getting through those all-important classes? The popular psychoactive stimulant increases alertness while battling fatigue; helps us stay productive throughout long hours at desks without feeling too gunked up inside ourselves.
Benefits of Using Nootropics
Lowers Stress Levels
Nootropics are a class of supplements that can reduce stress. Unlike most medications, nootropic drugs don’t work by targeting one specific receptor in your brain. Instead, they stimulate the production of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine through various pathways—a process called “agonist-activator” pharmacology (or sigma-1 agonism).
The result is improved cognitive performance because these substances make you feel happier while promoting relaxation. In some cases, natural Nootropics have even shown more significant effects on mental alertness than their synthetic counterparts.
They Help You Sleep Better
Sleep deprivation is terrible for your brain. It can cause you to lose focus, pay less attention during the daytime, and decrease short-term memory retention.
Tyrosine helps to reduce anxiety and to relax a stressed brain, thus allowing you to sleep better at night.
It Improves Your Memory
Bacopa monnieri has been used to improve short-term memory in healthy individuals. It also enhances signaling within the hippocampus, where memories are stored for future recall.
Research on creatine suggests this supplement may help you remember things better no matter your age or mental state right now.
Nootropics help boost brain power by physically improving your body’s cells via amino acids that help neurons quickly transmit signals.
Helps with Mood-Balancing
Mood swings and anxiety can affect a person’s mood and memory performance levels. Nootropic supplements seem to help with these issues, while others like L-Theanine may improve alpha brain waves which promote relaxed alertness.
Think of your brain as a muscle. It gets tired from doing one thing for too long, like exercising or working out at the gym with only weights to stimulate it physically before switching over to cardio exercises that require more mental endurance (such as running).
Nootropics can help by focusing on one task while ignoring environmental stimuli, so you don’t get distracted when trying something new. This could lead to more productivity in various areas, such as studying without worrying how much time has passed since the last break.
You Boost Your Mental Energy
Nootropics offer sustainable ways to improve your brain’s fuel efficiency, which means you may be able to think more clearly and quickly. Nootropic supplements are not addictive like caffeine so that they won’t give you that jittery feeling in the morning.
20% of your body’s energy is consumed by thinking; thus, physical health and mental wellness matter, and nootropics help a lot.
How To Choose The Best Nootropics?
The process of buying nootropics may be confusing for some people because there’s no one-size-fits-all approach to this emerging industry. So here is a simple guide to help you get the best nootropics.
Define Why You Need the Nootropics
Your needs for the nootropic vary; you may want to boost your creativity or enhance your focus. Once you know what you want, go for the best nootropic in that category.
Therefore, conduct extensive research by reading articles, studies, and journals to find this out. Online review sites are also a great place to get this information.
Consider the Dosage
There are many different types of nootropics, and not all may have adverse effects. Additionally, you don’t know how it will affect your body; the dosage can be cautiously increased over time to see what happens with less system shock from a new substance if used sparingly at first.
Try Pairing Up Ingredients or Getting Alternatives
If you run out of your nootropic choice and have difficulty re-acquiring more, it’s best to be prepared with alternative recipes/alternative supplements.
For example, another prevalent option for people looking to avoid caffeine is L-theanine which has a better effect on many individuals while still providing some caffeine benefits as well.
Lead a Healthy Lifestyle
If you want nootropics ingredients to be most effective, they must work in harmony with your lifestyle. The best way for this is by living a healthy life and getting enough sleep, ideally 8 hours per night.
It’s also essential to have an exercise plan that suits you perfectly and avoid too many unhealthy snacks or processed foods. Do this while still sticking closely by the requirements of calories & nutrients needed but not going over your Body Mass Index ( BMI) limits.
Risks & Side Effects
Nootropics, or “smart drugs,” can be a risky and side effect-filled game.
Some of the risks include:
- Insomnia may lead to more serious problems like high blood pressure.
- Blurry vision due to an increased heart rate that could result in circulation issues if not appropriately monitored by doctors:
- Addiction is also possible with nootropics use since there’s always a risk factor when it comes down to unmanaged dosing.
- Risk of interactions with other drugs.
How to take Nootropics?
Taking nootropics will mostly depend on the form they come in. Some are powder, others gummies, or capsules. All in all, you must get the dosage recommendation from an expert. Ideally, you should ingest nootropics in the morning or the evening so that you have a productive day or a good night’s sleep.
You may mix them with food while taking them on an empty stomach, again, something you need to clarify with the experts.
Nootropics have far more benefits to your brainpower, helping you become better and more efficient with an improved mental function. The five products are the best nootropics to help you rewire your brain pathways to be better and better as time goes by. Regardless, it would be best if you were careful not to overindulge as there are risks involved.
All in all, they do work. So get one and see how your life will change for the better.
Frequently Asked Questions
It depends. Natural nootropics are the best to use for kids as they contain additives, thus safe for children.
Yes, you can. These are called nootropic stacks which contain multiple nootropics that give you a beneficial synergy effect.
Many nootropics take a while to build up in the body before their effects are felt.
When a nootropic works, you feel a rush of energy plus a boost in your mood. You can focus better and become alert. Your memory and verbal recall become impressive, and you eradicate all the brain fog.
Depending on the type you get, the general dosage is a daily one. The amount and how to take it are indicated on the packaging. Follow that to the letter.
Some of them are, like caffeine. But as long as you take the proper dosage at the right time, you will be okay.
No, they will not because they are not an illegal substance. You must, however, be super careful where you buy them. Sub-par qualities may have illicit substances that might raise a red flag during a drug test.
You can if you take too much of it, and the results would be adverse effects like a raised blood flow pressure or even death in rare cases. You must be very vigilant to follow the dosage to the letter.
Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here
- Suliman, N.A., Mat Taib, C.N., Mohd Moklas, M.A., Adenan, M.I., Hidayat Baharuldin, M.T. and Basir, R. (2016). Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, [online] 2016, pp.1–12. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021479/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Suliman, N.A., Mat Taib, C.N., Mohd Moklas, M.A., Adenan, M.I., Hidayat Baharuldin, M.T. and Basir, R. (2016). Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, [online] 2016, pp.1–12. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27656235/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Wood, S., Sage, J.R., Shuman, T. and Anagnostaras, S.G. (2013). Psychostimulants and Cognition: A Continuum of Behavioral and Cognitive Activation. Pharmacological Reviews, [online] 66(1), pp.193–221. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880463/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Miskowiak, K.W., Carvalho, A.F., Vieta, E. and Kessing, L.V. (2016). Cognitive enhancement treatments for bipolar disorder: A systematic review and methodological recommendations. European Neuropsychopharmacology, [online] 26(10), pp.1541–1561. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27593623/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Asp, K. (2015). What is CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) Therapy? [online] Aastweb.org. Available at: https://www.aastweb.org/blog/what-is-cpap-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-therapy [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Kollb-Sielecka, M., Demolis, P., Emmerich, J., Markey, G., Salmonson, T. and Haas, M. (2017). The European Medicines Agency review of pitolisant for treatment of narcolepsy: summary of the scientific assessment by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Sleep Medicine, [online] 33, pp.125–129. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28449891/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Clinicaltrials.gov. (2021). Effect of a Nootropic on the Cognitive Performance in Young Adults – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov. [online] Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04790188 [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Clinicaltrials.gov. (2020). Safety and Efficacy Study of Qualia Mind on Cognition in a Healthy Population – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov. [online] Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04389723 [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Lai, P.-L., Naidu, M., Sabaratnam, V., Wong, K.-H., David, R.P., Kuppusamy, U.R., Abdullah, N. and Malek, S.N.A. (2013). Neurotrophic Properties of the Lion’s Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, [online] 15(6), pp.539–554. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24266378/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Young, S.N. (2007). L-tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress? Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN, [online] 32(3), p.224. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1863555/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Fioravanti, M. and Buckley, A.E. (2006). Citicoline (Cognizin) in the treatment of cognitive impairment. Clinical Interventions in Aging, [online] 1(3), pp.247–251. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2695184/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J. and Anishetty, S. (2012). A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, [online] 34(3), pp.255–262. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3573577/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Pratte, M.A., Nanavati, K.B., Young, V. and Morley, C.P. (2014). An Alternative Treatment for Anxiety: A Systematic Review of Human Trial Results Reported for the Ayurvedic Herb Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, [online] 20(12), pp.901–908. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4270108/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Parasuraman, S., Anand David, A. and Arulmoli, R. (2016). Overviews of biological importance of quercetin: A bioactive flavonoid. Pharmacognosy Reviews, [online] 10(20), p.84. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5214562/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Kuratko, C., Barrett, E., Nelson, E. and Salem, N. (2013). The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review. Nutrients, [online] 5(7), pp.2777–2810. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738999/#:~:text=In%20animals%2C%20low%20brain%20DHA%20results%20in%20impaired%20learning%20and%20behavior.&text=However%2C%20studies%20of%20brain%20activity,area%20of%20cognition%20or%20behavior. [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Silberstein, R.B., Pipingas, A., Song, J., Camfield, D.A., Nathan, P.J. and Stough, C. (2011). Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, [online] 2011, pp.1–10. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166615/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Kumar, N., Abichandani, L.G., Thawani, V., Gharpure, K.J., Naidu, M.U.R. and Venkat Ramana, G. (2016). Efficacy of Standardized Extract ofBacopa monnieri(Bacognize®) on Cognitive Functions of Medical Students: A Six-Week, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, [online] 2016, pp.1–8. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075615/#:~:text=Bacopa%20significantly%20improved%20speed%20of,learning%20and%20memory%20%5B31%5D. [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Avgerinos, K.I., Spyrou, N., Bougioukas, K.I. and Kapogiannis, D. (2018). Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Experimental Gerontology, [online] 108, pp.166–173. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093191/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Avgerinos, K.I., Spyrou, N., Bougioukas, K.I. and Kapogiannis, D. (2018). Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Experimental Gerontology, [online] 108, pp.166–173. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6093191/#:~:text=Oral%20creatine%20administration%20may%20improve,should%20include%20larger%20sample%20sizes. [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Ma, G., Zheng, Q., Xu, M., Zhou, X., Lu, L., Li, Z. and Zheng, G.-Q. (2018). Rhodiola rosea L. Improves Learning and Memory Function: Preclinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms. Frontiers in Pharmacology, [online] 9. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288277/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research and Marriott, B.M. (2018). Effects of Caffeine on Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Alertness in Sleep-Deprived Humans. [online] Nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209050/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Cussac, D., Boutet-Robinet, E., Ailhaud, M.-C., Newman-Tancredi, A., Martel, J.-C., Danty, N. and Rauly-Lestienne, I. (2008). Agonist-directed trafficking of signalling at serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C-VSV receptors mediated Gq/11 activation and calcium mobilisation in CHO cells. European Journal of Pharmacology, [online] 594(1-3), pp.32–38. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18703043/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Avgerinos, K.I., Spyrou, N., Bougioukas, K.I. and Kapogiannis, D. (2018). Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Experimental Gerontology, [online] 108, pp.166–173. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29704637/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research (2018). Amino Acid and Protein Requirements: Cognitive Performance, Stress, and Brain Function. [online] Nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK224629/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].
- NeuroHealth Associates. (2013). The Science of Brainwaves – the Language of the Brain. [online] Available at: https://nhahealth.com/brainwaves-the-language/ [Accessed 27 Sep. 2021].