Lead author Daniel Kadouri, Ph.D., an assistant professor of oral biology at New Jersey Dental School, and his team focused on two bacteria: Micavibrio aeruginosavorus and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. Dr. Kadouri says the two microorganisms were chosen because they are true predators. “They actually have to consume other bacteria in order to complete their life cycles,” notes Kadouri. “They have a great ability to seek out other bacteria, invade them, grow in or on them, and kill them.”
The researchers found that in a laboratory environment, M. aeruginosavorus was able to reduce populations of 57 of 89 bacteria examined. B. bacteriovorus reduced 68 forms of bacteria out of 83 tested. The bacteria effectively attacked include Klebsiella pneumoniae, a cause of lung infection; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can be fatal for patients suffering from the lung disorder cystic fibrosis; and cinetobacter, which in its drug-resistant form can produce extremely hard-to-treat infections in wounds.
Kadouri hopes that one day medical practitioners can use these predator bacteria to supplement antibiotic drugs in treating life-threatening infections. “We have been living with bacteria all our lives,” he reminds us. “There are bacteria in and on us, and they are a part of our ecology. When we eat yogurt and cheese, for example, we are eating bacteria.” Kadouri adds that the predator bacteria he is examining are among the many bacteria in our environment that are considered harmless to humans.
A big unknown at the moment is whether predator bacteria can have the same effect on harmful microbes inside the human body as they do in the lab. It is possible that the human immune system would neutralize these bacteria before they could do their beneficial work. But if that problem can be avoided, or solved, Kadouri is confident that a new disease-fighting tool may one day be put into use.
The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) is the nation’s largest free-standing public health sciences university with more than 6,000 students attending the state’s three medical schools, its only dental school, a graduate school of biomedical sciences, a school of health related professions, a school of nursing and its only school of public health on five campuses. Annually, there are more than two million patient visits at UMDNJ facilities and faculty practices at campuses in Newark, New Brunswick/Piscataway, Scotch Plains, Camden and Stratford. UMDNJ operates University Hospital, a Level I Trauma Center in Newark, and University Behavioral HealthCare, which provides a continuum of healthcare services with multiple locations throughout the state.