WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. — The midgut of a mosquito may hold the key to preventing mosquito-borne diseases like Zika and Dengue, according to research published in PLOS Pathogens.
A mosquito’s ability to replicate and transmit a virus depends on the metabolic environment of tissues in its midgut: the primary site of infection. By targeting the sphingolipid pathway, which links together several pathways important for cell signaling and subcellular structure that are altered by virus infection, researchers could devise strategies that stall viral replication in the mosquito and prevent its transmission to humans.
“The strategies that are being used right now often involve sterilizing mosquitoes or eradicating them, and those might work, but a subtler way would be simply changing the ability of the virus to exploit a pathway and let the mosquito continue on like nothing happened,” said Richard Kuhn, director of Purdue’s Institute of Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease. “It’s fairly common these days to alter the expression of genes, so we might be able to create a different form of the enzyme that is not susceptible to virus manipulation.”
Arboviruses move between mosquitoes (or ticks) and hosts. After an infected mosquito bites a host, the host comes down with the disease, and eventually another mosquito bites the host, picks up the disease in its blood meal and the cycle continues.
When a mosquito is infected, its metabolism changes to accommodate the virus. In the case of Aedes aegypti, the “yellow fever mosquito,” there are big fluctuations in molecules that function as membrane building blocks, energy storage molecules and intermediates in lipid production.
These changes could be a result of cellular resources being redistributed for viral replication, the cellular response to infection, or both. The consequences for the mosquito aren’t totally clear. Unlike humans who get sick or die, mosquitoes seem to be fine.
In mammals, infected cells usually die. Mosquito cells survive, but there must be some negative consequence, said Kuhn, the Trent and Judith Anderson Distinguished Professor in Science.
“It’s like a bunch of people invading a house and reorganizing it to support mischievous activity they want to do in there,” he said. “The virus goes in and makes changes to the cell. In this case, it’s changing lipid biosynthesis, which is fundamental to all life.”
The study describes the first comprehensive analysis of the Aedes aegypti midgut. Usually, this type of experiment is done in cells, and researchers make assumptions about how the results would translate to a human or mosquito.
“Here, we’re looking directly at the mosquito,” Kuhn said. “I can’t tell you how much work it was to isolate a sufficient number of mosquito midgut cells that were infected with Dengue virus.”
Arboviruses are endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, but rising temperatures are expanding the areas in which mosquitoes can thrive. Cases of Dengue have increased 30-fold over the past 50 years, and climate is known to be one of the important drivers. As Dengue and other arboviruses become more prominent, techniques for mitigating them could become dire.
Researchers from Colorado State University collaborated with the Purdue team on this work. The Institute of Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease is housed in Purdue’s Discovery Park.
Writer: Kayla Zacharias, 765-494-9318, firstname.lastname@example.org
Source: Richard Kuhn, 765-494-1164, email@example.com
Dynamic Remodeling of Lipids Coincides with Dengue Virus Replication in the Midgut of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes
Nunya Chotiwan, Barbara G. Andre, Irma Sanchez-Vargas, M. Nurul Islam, Jeffrey M. Grabowski, Amber Hopf-Jannasch, Erik Gough, Ernesto Nakayasu, Carol D. Blair, John T. Belisle, Catherine A. Hill, Richard J. Kuhn, and Rushika Perera
We describe the first comprehensive analysis of the midgut metabolome of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for arboviruses such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Transmission of these viruses depends on their ability to infect, replicate and disseminate from several tissues in the mosquito vector. The metabolic environments within these tissues play crucial roles in these processes. Since these viruses are enveloped, viral replication, assembly and release occur on cellular membranes primed through the manipulation of host metabolism. Interference with this virus infection-induced metabolic environment is detrimental to viral replication in human and mosquito cell culture models. Here we present the first insight into the metabolic environment induced during arbovirus replication in Aedes aegypti. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we have analyzed the temporal metabolic perturbations that occur following dengue virus infection of the midgut tissue. This is the primary site of infection and replication, preceding systemic viral dissemination and transmission. We identified metabolites that exhibited a dynamic-profile across early-, mid- and late-infection time points. We observed a marked increase in the lipid content. An increase in glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and fatty acyls was coincident with the kinetics of viral replication. Elevation of glycerolipid levels suggested a diversion of resources during infection from energy storage to synthetic pathways. Elevated levels of acyl-carnitines were observed, signaling disruptions in mitochondrial function and possible diversion of energy production. A central hub in the sphingolipid pathway that influenced dihydroceramide to ceramide ratios was identified as critical for the virus life cycle. This study also resulted in the first reconstruction of the sphingolipid pathway in Aedes aegypti. Given conservation in the replication mechanisms of several flaviviruses transmitted by this vector, our results highlight biochemical choke points that could be targeted to disrupt transmission of multiple pathogens by these mosquitoes