The discovery, reported in the journal Current Biology, yields important insight into notions about personal responsibility.
“Our result suggests that people may really experience less responsibility for negative than for positive outcomes,” says Professor Patrick Haggard of the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. “This is not merely a retrospective justification about how well we have done: the actual experience that we have changes, even in basic aspects like its timing.”
The researchers used a standard approach to explore a phenomenon known as ‘sense of agency’, which refers to the feeling that one’s voluntary actions produce some external sensory event. For instance, if you flip a light switch and a light comes on, you often experience those events as nearly simultaneous, even if there is a bit of a lag.
People may really experience less responsibility for negative than for positive outcomes.
Professor Patrick Haggard, UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
Professor Haggard’s team decided to investigate whether our perception of time might depend on the emotional outcome of an action.
To find out, they tested people by asking them to press a key. Those key presses were followed with negative sounds of fear or disgust, positive sounds of achievement or amusement, or neutral sounds. Participants were then asked to estimate when they had made the action or when they had heard the sound.
The study reveals that individuals sense a longer time lag between their own actions and a negative response than when the response is positive. In other words, people actually experience a lower sense of agency for actions associated with a negative outcome.
The findings may help to explain why people are generally ready to take credit for good outcomes but not to accept responsibility for bad ones, the researchers say. It might also reveal why blame can be so much harder to accept than praise.
“The way we experience agency is not the same as the fact of agency,” say Professor Haggard. “We have to take responsibility for what we actually do, not just for how we experience things.”
Media contact: David Weston