Dogs could act as effective early-warning system for patients with diabetes

The findings, published in the journal PLOS ONE, is the first academic study to assess whether trained dogs could be used as a reliable early-warning system to monitor glycaemia control.

The Company of Animals-funded study, led by academics at the University of Bristol, investigated whether specially trained ‘glycaemia alert dogs’ could accurately and consistently detect the signs of low/high blood sugar in their owners and alert them when levels were reported to be outside their target range.

A total of seventeen dogs which have been trained by Medical Detection Dogs to alert their owners when their blood sugars were out of target range were studied. While some dogs had been specifically chosen for their potential to work as a ‘glycaemia alert dog’, mostly donated to and trained by the charity, others were clients’ pets which had been trained in situ.

The research team collected data from the dogs owners’ that allowed them to assess objectively whether trained dogs reliably respond to their owners’ hypoglycaemic state, and whether owners experienced tightened glycaemic control, and wider psychosocial benefits.

The findings showed that since obtaining their dog, all seventeen clients studied reported positive effects including reduced paramedic call outs, decreased unconscious episodes and improved independence. Owner-recorded data showed that dogs alerted their owners, with significant, though variable, accuracy at times of low and high blood sugar.

Dr Nicola Rooney, the study’s lead author and a research fellow in the University’s School of Veterinary Sciences, said: “Despite considerable resources having been invested in developing electronic systems to facilitate tightened glycaemic control, current equipment has numerous limitations. These findings are important as they show the value of trained dogs and demonstrate that glycaemia alert dogs placed with clients living with diabetes, afford significant improvements to owner well-being including increased glycaemic control, client independence and quality-of-life and potentially could reduce the costs of long-term health care.

Eight out of the ten dogs (for which owners provided adequate records) responded consistently more often when their owner’s blood sugars were reported to be outside, than within, target range. Comparison of nine clients’ routine records showed significant overall change after obtaining their dogs, with seven clients recording a significantly higher proportion of routine tests within target range after obtaining a dog. The study confirms that trained detection dogs perform above chance level.

Dr Rooney added: “Some of the owners also describe their dogs respond even before their blood sugars are low but as they start to drop, so it is possible that the dogs are even more effective than this study suggests.  While it is believed that dogs use their acute sense of smell to detect changes in the chemical composition of their owner’s sweat or breath to respond to glycaemic control, further research is now needed to further understand how dogs carry out this amazing task.”


Further information:


The paper, entitled ‘Investigation into the Value of Trained Glycaemia Alert Dogs to Clients with Type I Diabetes’ by Nicola J. Rooney, Steve Morant and Claire Guest is published in the journal PLOS ONE.


Diabetes is a chronic condition affecting 2.6 million people in the UK, approximately ten per cent of which have Type I diabetes. Hypoglycaemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, is a common and potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes in individuals receiving insulin and is especially hazardous for long-term patients who may have lost the ability to recognise early-warning signs.

Medical Detection Dogs

Medical Detection Dogs is a charity that trains dogs to help people with life-threatening health conditions, giving them greater independence and above all saving their lives on a daily basis. Medical Detection Dogs works in partnership with researchers, NHS Trusts and Universities to train specialist dogs to detect the odour of human disease.

Dogs are renowned for their sense of smell. Medical Alert Dogs are trained to assist individuals who manage complex medical conditions on a day to day basis. Our dogs are taught to identify the odour changes that are associated with certain medical events. For example for someone living with diabetes, hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) or the avoidance of it can be a daily problem. Symptoms can vary from confusion to seizures or comas and be life threatening. Once trained, our Medical Alert Dogs recognise blood sugar levels outside the normal range and warn their owners or get help, before the symptoms are felt. They will bring their owner any necessary medical supplies such as glucose and blood testing kits. They can also be trained to push alarm buttons.

The Company of Animals

The Company of Animals, founded in 1979, specialises in all levels of dog training, behaviour consultations to treat aggressive dogs, as well as resolving legal issues about pets, in and out of court.