Barcelona, Spain : Dark chocolate enriched with extra virgin olive oil is associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile, according to research presented today at ESC Congress. (1)
“A healthy diet is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease,” said lead author Dr Rossella Di Stefano, a cardiologist at the University of Pisa, Italy. “Fruits and vegetables exert their protective effects through plant polyphenols, which are found in cocoa, olive oil, and apples. Research has found that the Italian Panaia red apple has very high levels of polyphenols and antioxidants.”
This study tested the association between consumption of dark chocolate enriched with extra virgin olive oil or Panaia red apple (table 1) with atherosclerosis progression in healthy individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.
The randomised crossover study included 26 volunteers (14 men, 12 women) with at least three cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, or family history of cardiovascular disease) who received 40 grams of dark chocolate daily for 28 days. For 14 consecutive days it contained 10% extra virgin olive oil and for 14 consecutive days it contained 2.5% Panaia red apple. The two types of chocolate were given in random order.
Progression of atherosclerosis was assessed by metabolic changes (levels of carnitine and hippurate), lipid profile, blood pressure and levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). EPCs are critical for vascular repair and maintenance of endothelial function.
Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Urine samples were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for endogenous metabolites. Circulating EPC levels were assessed with flow cytometry. Smoking status, body mass index, blood pressure, glycaemia and lipid profile were also monitored.
After 28 days, the researchers found that the chocolate enriched with olive oil was associated with significantly increased EPC levels and decreased carnitine and hippurate levels compared to both baseline and after consumption of apple-enriched chocolate. Olive oil-enriched chocolate was associated with significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (“good”) cholesterol and decreased blood pressure compared to baseline. There was a non-significant decrease in triglyceride levels with apple-enriched chocolate.
Dr Di Stefano said: “We found that small daily portions of dark chocolate with added natural polyphenols from extra virgin olive oil was associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile. Our study suggests that extra virgin olive oil might be a good food additive to help preserve our ‘repairing cells’, the EPC.”
Table 1: Nutrient composition of enriched dark chocolate (100 g) (70% cocoa)
|Nutrient||Dark chocolate with 10% extra virgin olive oil||Dark chocolate with 2.5% Panaia red apple|
|Total fat (g)||47||35.3|
|Saturated fat (g)||24.5||22.1|
Notes to editor
Sources of funding: This research was supported by the project: “Valorizzazione nutraceutica di prodotti tipici toscani in alimenti innovativi a base di cacao -TOSCOLATA® – (PRAF) 2014-2015 Regione Toscana Italia”.
References and notes:
(1) The abstract “Extra virgin olive oil and apples enriched-dark chocolate consumption and endothelial function: a randomized crossover trial in patients with cardiovascular risk factors” will be presented during:
• The press conference Living longer: Tips and tricks on Sunday 27 August from 9:00 to 10:00.
• Poster session 6: Prevention – Diet and obesity on Tuesday 29 August from 08:30 to 12:30 in the Poster Area.
ESC Press Office
For more information, please contact the ESC Press Office: firstname.lastname@example.org.
For press enquiries, independent comment on-site, please contact, the Media & Press Coordinator Jacques Olivier COSTA: +34 666 509 856
The press conference timetable is available here.
To access all the scientific resources from the sessions during the congress, visit ESC Congress 365.
About the European Society of Cardiology
The European Society of Cardiology brings together health care professionals from more than 140 countries, working to advance cardiovascular medicine and help people lead longer, healthier lives.
About ESC Congress 2017
ESC Congress is the world’s largest and most influential cardiovascular event contributing to global awareness of the latest clinical trials and breakthrough discoveries. ESC Congress 2017 takes place 26 to 30 August at the Fira Gran Via in Barcelona, Spain. The scientific programme is here. More information is available from the ESC Press Office at email@example.com.
This press release accompanies both a presentation and an ESC press conference at the ESC Congress 2017. Edited by the ESC from material supplied by the investigators themselves, this press release does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Society of Cardiology. The content of the press release has been approved by the presenter.