While infant mortality in the United States has declined by 11 percent since 2006, little progress has been made in reducing stillbirth and miscarriage rates, according to a recent report by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
“Research shows that approximately one in four women will experience a miscarriage, a loss before the 20th week of pregnancy, but it’s not something that we are comfortable talking about,” said Joyce Nuner, Ph.D., an associate professor of Child and Family Studies in Baylor’s Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences. “It’s a silent sorrow.”
Perinatal bereavement is minimized in the workplace, she said. A recent article by The New York Times that explored Amazon’s treatment of employees noted that workers who suffered from miscarriages said they were evaluated unfairly or edged out rather than given time to recover. One mother whose child was stillborn — “the most devastating event in my life” — said she left Amazon after being told her performance would be monitored “to make sure my focus stayed on my job.”
“Such actions and attitudes are not as unusual as we might think,” Nuner said. “In our support groups, I’ve been shocked by the stories of some parents and how they have been treated at work by supervisors and co-workers. Many report a lack of sensitivity, empathy or even recognition that their baby has died.”
Nuner, a mother of three, who also lost a baby girl at 16 weeks, is conducting research to learn how and when attachments are formed with a baby during pregnancy, how maternal mental health is affected by a loss, how the loss impacts future parenting — and how healing can be promoted.
“Through my research and work with Cradled, I am interested in providing parents a place to tell their story,” Nuner said. “This is often a subject that many are hesitant to talk about . . . even taboo.”
Cradled, founded by Baylor alumna Rachel Craig, a counselor in Texas School Neuropsychology, offers confidential support through peer groups, a six-week bereavement curriculum and individual meetings with families who have experienced a miscarriage, stillbirth, death within the first year of life, or infertility.
The organization, which also has a Tennessee chapter, offers in-hospital services, such as photography, memory-making such as handprints and footprints, and emotional support during delivery, if requested. Cradled volunteers will assist in planning individual memorials. As an organization, they recognize Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day on Oct. 15 of each year with a community event and hold a remembrance service each December.
“As a bereaved mother, there were things that I wished I had said or asked for when I was delivering our baby girl,” Nuner said. “I wanted pictures of her and I wanted to hold her. I did ask for those things, but I had to ask. I felt so uncomfortable, and later I looked back and wished I had asked for hand and footprints. These are not things that I had to request after the birth of my living children.”
For families that want to plan a memorial service, “we’ll help them walk through that. Rituals are part of the grief process,” she said.
Miscarriage and stillbirth are both physically and emotionally difficult for women. The loss of a baby through miscarriage or stillbirth can come with many of the same physical symptoms experienced after giving birth to a full-term, healthy baby — hormonal changes that affect mood, breast discomfort, abdominal cramping. “Because we don’t talk about it, sometimes parents are caught off guard,” Nuner said.
“One of the things I’ve seen early in my research is that grief that is not addressed will come out in some way – sometimes healthy, sometimes not,” she said. “When our baby died, many people didn’t want to talk about it – even close family members. I was fortunate to have several co-workers that had also experienced a loss provide support. However, some people, if they know, will say things like, ‘You can always have other children.’ ‘You have two children.’ ‘It’s God’s will.’ These were not helpful things to say. What you’re saying is that the child is replaceable — but every child is unique, distinct and irreplaceable.
“My grief brought on a deep depression, clinical depression, and I had to get help to get through that very dark time.”
According to the American Psychological Association, 15 percent of women will experience clinically significant depression and/or anxiety after a miscarriage or stillbirth that can last for up to three years.
Other complications following loss can include attachment issues.
“Some parents in our groups have said that they had a difficult time bonding with their subsequent baby after they lost a child through miscarriage or stillbirth. They may put up an emotional wall to protect themselves from getting too attached,” Nuner said. “The other end of the spectrum is when we see parents react to the loss of their baby by acting highly anxious during subsequent pregnancies, for example, going to the doctor every week to be sure the baby’s heart is still beating.”
Then there’s the spiritual aspect.
“Many people struggle tremendously,” Nuner said. “This leaves many of our group members asking big questions about God, about religion and about spirituality in general. While Cradled is not designated as a Christian nonprofit, it is led by Judeo-Christian individuals. But our goal is to provide a safe place for all — all denominations, all beliefs systems and all parents suffering the loss of a child. We give them the space to talk about it.”
The next six-week support group will begin at 6:30 p.m. Wednesday, Sept. 23, at DaySpring Baptist Church, 7900 Renewal Way in Waco. For more information about Cradled, visit www.cradled.org; or contact Rachel@cradled.org or firstname.lastname@example.org
ABOUT BAYLOR UNIVERSITY
Baylor University is a private Christian University and a nationally ranked research institution, characterized as having “high research activity” by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The University provides a vibrant campus community for approximately 16,000 students by blending interdisciplinary research with an international reputation for educational excellence and a faculty commitment to teaching and scholarship. Chartered in 1845 by the Republic of Texas through the efforts of Baptist pioneers, Baylor is the oldest continually operating University in Texas. Located in Waco, Baylor welcomes students from all 50 states and more than 80 countries to study a broad range of degrees among its 12 nationally recognized academic divisions. Baylor sponsors 19 varsity athletic teams and is a founding member of the Big 12 Conference.
ABOUT THE ROBBINS COLLEGE OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES
After more than three years of evaluation and input from Baylor regents, deans, faculty and staff, and external entities, the Baylor Board of Regents approved the creation of the Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences on May 16, 2014. This was also a direct result of identified priorities for strengthening the health sciences through Baylor’s strategic vision, Pro Futuris, which serves as a compass for the University’s future. The anchor academic units that form the new College –Communication Sciences and Disorders, Family and Consumer Sciences, Health, Human Performance and Recreation, and the Louise Herrington School of Nursing – share a common purpose: improving health and the quality of life. The new College is working to create curricula that will promote a team-based approach to patient care and will establish interdisciplinary research collaborations to advance solutions for improving the quality of life for individuals, families, and communities.
Contact: Terry Goodrich,(254) 710-3321