The sudden popularity of tablet computers such as the Apple iPad® has not allowed for the development of guidelines to optimize users’ comfort and well-being. In a new study published in Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, researchers from Harvard School of Public Health, Microsoft Corporation, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital report that head and neck posture during tablet computer use can be improved by placing the tablet higher to avoid low gaze angles, and through the use of a case that provides optimal viewing angles.
“Compared to typical desktop computing scenarios, the use of media tablet computers is associated with high head and neck flexion postures, and there may be more of a concern for the development of neck and shoulder discomfort,” said lead investigator Jack T. Dennerlein, PhD, of the Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
Fifteen experienced tablet users completed a set of simulated tasks with two media tablets, an Apple iPad2 and a Motorola Xoom. Each tablet had a proprietary case that could be adjusted to prop up or tilt the tablet computer. The Apple Smart Cover allows for tilt angles of 15° and 73°, and the Motorola Portfolio Case allows for tilt angles of 45° and 63°. Four user configurations were tested: Lap-Hand, where the tablet was placed on the lap; Lap-Case, with the tablet placed on the lap in its case set at the lower angle setting; Table-Case, with the tablet placed on a table with its case at the lower angle; and Table-Movie, with the tablet placed on a table with its case at the higher angle.
During the experiment, users completed simple computer tasks such as Internet browsing and reading, game playing, email reading and responding, and movie watching. Head and neck postures and gaze angle and distance were measured using an infrared three-dimensional motion analysis system.
Head and neck flexion varied significantly across the four configurations and across the two tablets tested. The iPad2 was associated with more flexed postures when it was placed in its case. This appeared to be driven by differences in case design, which drastically altered the tablet tilt angle and the corresponding viewing angle. For both tablets, the gaze angle changed in a similar fashion to the head flexion across all configurations, with non-perpendicular viewing angles causing increased head and neck flexion. Head and neck flexion angles were greater, in general, than reported for desktop or notebook computing.
Only when the tablets were used in the Table-Movie configuration, where the devices were set at their steepest case angle setting and at the greatest horizontal and vertical position, did posture approach neutral. This suggests that tablet users should place the tablet higher, on a table rather than a lap, to avoid low gaze angles, and use a case that provides steeper viewing angles. However, steeper angles may be detrimental for continuous input with the hands. “Further studies examining the effects of tablet and configuration on arm and wrist postures are needed to clarify and complete the postural evaluation,” noted Dr. Dennerlein.
“Our results will be useful for updating ergonomic computing standards and guidelines for tablet computers. These are urgently needed as companies and health care providers weigh options to implement wide-scale adoption of tablet computers for business operations,” Dr. Dennerlein concluded.
The study, “Touch-Screen Tablet User Configurations and Case-Supported Tilt Affect Head and Neck Flexion Angles,” by Justin G. Young, Matthieu Trudeau, Dan Odell, Kim Marinelli, Jack T. Dennerleinhas been made freely available at http://iospress.metapress.com/content/x668002xv6211041/fulltext.pdf.
# # #
NOTES FOR EDITORS
“Touch-Screen Tablet User Configurations and Case-Supported Tilt Affect Head and Neck Flexion Angles,” by J.G. Young, M. Trudeau, D. Odell, K. Marinelli and J.T. Dennerlein. Work 41(1) (2012), pp. 81-91. DOI 10.3233/WOR-2012-1337. Published by IOS Press.
Full text of the article while under embargo is available to credentialed journalists. Contact Esther Mateike, IOS Press, Tel: +31 20 688 3355, [email protected]. Journalists wishing to interview the authors should contact Jack T. Dennerlein, Harvard School of Public Health, Tel: +1 617 384 8812, [email protected].
ABOUT THE JOURNAL
WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation is an interdisciplinary, international journal that publishes high-quality peer-reviewed articles covering the entire scope of the occupation of work. The journal’s subtitle has been deliberately laid out: The first goal is the prevention of illness, injury, and disability. When this goal is not achievable, the attention focuses on assessment to design client-centered intervention, rehabilitation, treatment, or controls that use scientific evidence to support best practice. Issues cover a wide range of topics such as ergonomic considerations with children, youth and students, the challenges facing an aging workforce, workplace violence, injury management, performing artists, ergonomic product evaluations, and the awareness of the political, cultural, and environmental determinants of health related to work. Occupational therapist, Dr. Karen Jacobs is the founding Editor-in-Chief of WORK.
WORK is affiliated with the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT) and is endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA). www.iospress.nl/journal/work
ABOUT IOS PRESS
Commencing its publishing activities in 1987, IOS Press (www.iospress.nl) serves the information needs of scientific and medical communities worldwide. IOS Press now (co-)publishes over 100 international journals and about 130 book titles each year on subjects ranging from computer sciences and mathematics to medicine and the natural sciences.
IOS Press continues its rapid growth, embracing new technologies for the timely dissemination of information. All journals are available electronically and an ebook platform was launched in 2005.
Headquartered in Amsterdam with satellite offices in the USA, Germany, India and China, IOS Press has established several strategic co-publishing initiatives. Notable acquisitions included Delft University Press in 2005 and Millpress Science Publishers in 2008.