How teenagers cope with inner-city risks

The results revealed that to overcome concerns and cope with dangerous situations, girls tried to avoid or escape risky encounters – although for some this conflicted with a desire to be independent, glamorous and to seek out boyfriends. Boys, on the other hand, acted and talked tough to prove their street credentials but were critical of gangs and youth violence.

The research was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and carried out by Doctor Jenny Parkes and Doctor Anna Connolly at the Institute of Education, University of London. The researchers talked with young teenagers about the risks and dangers they faced in the community. “Although the London neighbourhood we studied was identified as a ‘hotspot’ for gang activity, most of the young people we spoke to were highly critical of gangs, youth crime and violence,” says Parkes. “One thing that emerged from the discussions was the frequent dilemma boys in their early teens faced in working out how to deal with the dangers they encountered routinely in their neighbourhoods.”

The study found that the way threatening situations were dealt with in the streets was closely linked with young people’s relationships in schools, homes and communities. For all of them, a threat of gang violence was a concern as was sexual harassment for the girls. In addition, for some (especially young people with a history of school exclusion) a number of the tactics they adopted to avoid danger exposed them to additional risks, including being teased by other youngsters. For girls, tactics for gaining respect by people of their own age, such as acting independently, or the choice of clothes they wore and having a boyfriend could be sources of conflict with their parents.

“By engaging young people in interviewing and data analysis for themselves, our research generated a great deal of discussion and critical reflection,” says Parkes. “The approach enabled them to discuss fears and anxieties that usually would have been hidden if the discussions had just been about ‘risk management'”.

Lauren Seager-Smith, National Co-ordinator, Anti-Bullying Alliance, welcomed the research because in preference to making assumptions, its findings help understand how young people experience violence today.

Lauren says, “Reports of sexual harassment of girls, and the pressure that ‘tough masculinity’ places on boys resonated with our work to combat gender-related bullying between young people. We also welcomed the researchers’ recommendation for a community and school-based approach that addresses all forms of violence against women and girls, and the negative impact on boys of acting and talking tough. Unless we take collective action, violence, harassment and bullying will continue in the privacy of intimate relationships and homes, in school classrooms and playgrounds, and in our neighbourhoods.”

For further information contact:


  • Institue of Education Press Office: Jennifer Sheldon
    Email: [email protected]
    Telephone: 020 7911 5423


ESRC Press Office:



Notes for editors


  1. This release is based on the findings from ‘Negotiating Danger, Risk and Safety: An Exploration with Young People in an Urban Neighbourhood‘. The research was funded by the ESRC and carried out by Doctor Jenny Parkes and Doctor Anna Conolly at the Institute of Education, University of London. Dr Parkes is senior lecturer in education, gender and international development.
  2. The research took place in a London borough known for its high level of socio-economic deprivation and where local concerns had been expressed about youth crime and gang activity. The first phase of the research involved over 100 interviews with young people and professionals in a range of education and community settings. Analysis of these interviews informed the second phase, when weekly meetings with groups of girls and boys in a secondary school and pupil referral unit explored how risks, dangers and safety were negotiated through social relationships. More information on the two phases (External PDF, 310Kb)
  3. The Anti-Bullying Alliance (ABA) is a unique coalition of over 130 members from the voluntary, public and private sectors that work together to reduce bullying and create safer environments in which children and young people can live, grow, play and learn. ABA is hosted by the National Children’s Bureau
  4. The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) is the UK’s largest organisation for funding research on economic and social issues. It supports independent high quality research which has an impact on business, the public sector and the third sector. The ESRC’s total budget for 2012/13 is £205 million. At any one time the ESRC supports over 4,000 researchers and postgraduate students in academic institutions and independent research institutes.
  5. The ESRC confirms the quality of its funded research by evaluating research projects through a process of peers review. This research has been graded as good.