The scientists at the table were discussing the most pressing needs in the field of suicide prevention.
|“Depressed people who attempt suicide are different from those who do not. They need treatment for depression, but they also need therapy tailored to help with their suicidal thoughts and behaviors.”|
“I said we need a treatment for suicidal teens,” remembers Barbara Stanley, PhD, a Columbia clinical psychologist, “because at the time we knew very little about how to prevent kids from attempting suicide once they had made one attempt.”
Each year in the U.S., teenagers make two million suicide attempts, and past suicidal behavior is the biggest risk factor for another attempt. Adolescents who have already attempted suicide are 10 to 60 times more likely to die from suicide than the average adolescent.
Researchers still don’t have all the answers, but a research consortium that grew out of that dinner conversation is starting to challenge assumptions about conducting research with suicidal teens. And their latest finding shows that a new therapy developed specifically for suicidal adolescents may succeed in preventing future attempts.
“Futile” is the word Dr. Stanley uses to describes how most of her colleagues viewed suicide research in teenagers. Ten years ago, enrolling suicidal adolescents in treatment trials was deemed impracticable. Even in the best of circumstances, teenagers are hard to retain in treatment. When researchers factored in the tendency of suicidal individuals to drop out of treatment, the task of completing a treatment study became daunting.
“Unfortunately that left the field without any empirical guidance about how to help this high-risk group,” Dr. Stanley says. “And it’s an amazingly large group.”
In 2002, the nationwide consortium formed by Dr. Stanley – and other Columbia researchers including Laurence Greenhill, MD, the Ruane Professor of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Kelly Posner, PhD, associate clinical professor of medical psychology – organized a trial of a new psychotherapy called Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP) specifically developed for depressed, suicidal adolescents. Researchers from the National Institute of Mental Health, Duke, Johns Hopkins, the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center also were involved in the trial, which also evaluated the efficacy of psychotropic medications.
The new therapy doesn’t shy away from discussing the events that led up to the suicide attempt, says Dr. Stanley, who had a big hand in developing the treatment manual used in the trial.
“From the moment they come through the door, we talk about the attempt. We put that time period under a microscope to understand all the thoughts, feelings and behaviors that led up to it,” she says. “Then we identify what skills they lack that could prevent them from attempting suicide again.”
The events that trigger suicide attempts in teenagers often sound trivial to adults: a boyfriend doesn’t call at the promised time; an argument about grades with parents; or a conflict at school with friends. But it’s often in the context of longstanding depression, substance abuse, or family problems and conflicts.
“Let’s say a teenager feels unbearable anger after her father, who is divorced from her mother and lives in a nearby city, cancels plans to visit for the weekend,” Dr. Stanley says. “She feels rejected and that she’s a horrible person who has done something that causes her father to reject her. She may also feel guilty for feeling so angry with her father.”
Some teens cannot handle these intense feelings and hurt themselves instead. With CBT-SP, the therapist not only helps them understand their feelings and behaviors, but also teaches them specific skills they can use to enhance their capabilities to cope.
In dealing directly with the suicide attempt, the therapy takes a different tack from the way most suicidal adolescents have been treated in the past.
|“Our pilot study was really just step one, but it showed us that research with suicidal kids is feasible, not futile.”|
Because most suicidal teenagers are depressed, researchers believed that successful treatment of depression would also eliminate suicidal thoughts. But recent studies — including analyses of brain chemistry by Columbia neuroscientist J. John Mann, MD, the Paul Janssen Professor of Translational Neuroscience — suggest there is something different about being suicidal.
“The brains of depressed people who attempt suicide are different from those that do not,” Dr. Stanley says. “Our point of view is that while they need treatment for depression, they also need therapy tailored to help with their suicidal thoughts and behaviors.”
Results from the consortium’s trial — recently published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry — suggest the psychotherapy may be helpful. The rate of suicidal events among participants who chose the new therapy was lower than rates typically found in surveys of suicidal teenagers.
But because of the pilot study’s design (the participants chose their own treatment among three choices: talk therapy, antidepressants, or both), the therapy’s effectiveness is still uncertain, and a randomized, controlled clinical trial is needed.
“Our pilot study was really just step one,” Dr. Stanley says, “but it showed us that research with these kids is feasible, not futile.”