Best CBD Oil of 2021 – Top Rated CBD Oil Reviews

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Updated on - Written by
Medically reviewed by Victor Nguyen, PharmD.

Best CBD Oil For Pain

Many people use CBD oil products to support their overall health and deal with specific symptoms and conditions. We’ve put together a list of the best CBD oil tinctures and a buyer’s guide with tips and other helpful information.

Everyone struggles occasionally with anxiety, pain, sleeplessness, and a myriad of other health issues. On top of that, many people have chronic health conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, and fibromyalgia, which significantly reduce their quality of life.

While there are medications available, they may often be limited by side effects, costs, and other downsides.

As a result, more and more individuals are turning to safe, natural, alternative solutions such as CBD oil to support their health. CBD oil is a supplement made out of cannabidiol (CBD) dissolved in a plant oil like olive oil. Then how does CBD affect our health?

However, the market is filled with thousands of products so it’s difficult to find the best CBD oil.

So we did the research for you, comparing multiple products based on the formula, potency, hemp source, price, third-party testing, and other factors. Keep reading for our reviews of the 10 best CBD oils of 2021. 

CBD Oil vs CBD Tincture

If you shop for CBD oil, you’re likely to run into the term “CBD tincture.” It’s typically used interchangeably with “CBD oil,” so they’re supposed to mean the same thing.

Technically speaking, this is wrong. By definition[1], a tincture is any preparation where the active ingredient is dissolved in alcohol. For example, iodine is frequently sold in alcohol tinctures.

However, you’ll quickly notice that CBD is never dissolved in alcohol; it’s mixed with coconut MCT oil or other plant oils. As such, using the term “CBD tincture” to refer to CBD oil is incorrect.

Still, this hasn’t stopped CBD companies and everyone else in the industry from using “CBD tincture” to mean the same thing as “CBD oil.” 

So the next time you see the phrase, you’re probably dealing with regular CBD oil.

Editor’s Choice

Take Spruce CBD

Spruce CBD

Why is it better?

  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Family-run business
  • High-quality, unique strain of hemp

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The Lineup At A Glance

Best Reputation

  • Higher concentrations of CBD
  • Several different concentrations available
  • Full-spectrum CBD for full effectiveness

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Best Formula

  • Unique wellness formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Kentucky hemp

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Best Pure CBD

  • Pure CBD isolate formula
  • Exceptionally low prices
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified

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Best Broad-Spectrum

  • THC-free, broad-spectrum formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Colorado hemp

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Best Overall

  • High-quality full-spectrum formula
  • Grows its own hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party and in-house testing

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Best Potency

  • Very high potency available
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • High-quality Colorado hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

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Best Flavor

  • Five pleasant flavors
  • THC-free, broad-spectrum formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

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Best Value

  • Exceptionally low prices
  • Large discounts for veterans
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

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Best Reputation

  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Self-affirmed GRAS
  • Comprehensive third-party and in-house testing
  • Established, respected brand

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Most Natural

  • Full-spectrum formula rich in minor cannabinoids
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Unflavored and mixed with hemp seed oil

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Best CBD Oil For Pain, Anxiety, Sleep & other Health Issues

Spruce CBD Oil

Take Spruce CBD

If you’re looking for high-quality, full-spectrum CBD oil from a company you can trust, the family-run Spruce CBD is a great choice.

  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Family-run business
  • High-quality, unique strain of American hemp
  • Costs more than average
  • Only two potencies

See Spruce CBD Reviews

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North Carolina’s Spruce CBD was founded in 2018. It’s a family-run business, which is a rarity in the CBD industry and immediately makes the company stand out as a trustworthy choice. 

Spruce is also unique for sourcing CBD from an old strain of hemp that’s been cultivated in the U.S. for over two centuries. It’s grown organically in Kentucky and North Carolina and extracted with alcohol to produce a full-spectrum hemp extract.

Full-spectrum CBD is rich in all of the plant’s cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial compounds.

Spruce’s third party-tested CBD oil comes in 30 ml bottles with two CBD potencies: 25 mg/ml (750 mg total) and 80 mg/ml (2400 mg total). This CBD oil is formulated with hemp seed oil and flavored with peppermint to give it a pleasant taste.

Royal CBD Full-Spectrum Oil

Royal Spectrum CBD Oil

While Royal CBD may be a little pricer than some CBD oils, the all-natural and environmentally friendly approach may be worth the extra cost.

  • Higher concentrations of CBD
  • Several different concentrations available
  • Full-spectrum CBD for full effectiveness
  • Organic and sustainably grown
  • Slightly pricier than competitors

See Royal CBD Reviews

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CBD is often a lower-cost alternative to some other natural or herbal remedies, particularly in the last few years as demand and availability have skyrocketed. Along with a widening market and growing demand have come some brands who may put profit above customer satisfaction.

Royal CBD, on the other hand, does everything to make sure their customers are happy. Each product comes with a third-party lab report, telling you exactly what’s in their CBD oil. It’s full of cannabidiols, compounds that support CBD in providing its benefits. Royal CBD derives their products from organic and natural hemp, so you know that’s all that’s in their CBD oil. 

That guarantee does come with a higher price tag, but it may be worth it for guaranteed improvement.

CBDfx CBD + CBG Wellness Tincture

cbdfx tincture

CBDfx’s wellness tincture has a unique formula containing curcumin and other ingredients, which may be particularly suited for supporting your overall health.

  • Unique wellness formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Kentucky hemp
  • Four potencies
  • Lacks regular full-spectrum formulas

See CBDfx Reviews

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Founded in 2014, California’s CBDfx is known for offering a wide variety of innovative CBD products ranging from face masks to vape juice.

This popular brand sources CBD from organic, Kentucky-grown hemp. It also orders comprehensive third-party lab tests, with the results available online.

CBDfx’s wellness tincture carries 500-4000 mg of CBD alongside other beneficial ingredients:

  • 250-2000 mg of CBG, another beneficial cannabinoid
  • Curcumin, an herbal compound known for its anti-inflammatory and other beneficial effects
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a natural antioxidant with multiple potential benefits

This formula is designed to support overall health and wellbeing by making use of multiple natural compounds. Like most CBD tinctures, it’s formulated with coconut MCT oil and comes in four potencies, ranging from low to high.

Medterra CBD Oil

Medterra oil -2

Medterra is a reputable brand with great prices, especially if you’re looking for pure CBD isolate oil.

  • Pure CBD isolate formula
  • Exceptionally low prices
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • No flavored options

See Medterra Reviews

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Medterra is a popular CBD brand offering reliable products at low prices.

The company derives its THC-free CBD from organic, non-GMO hemp plants grown in Kentucky. 

Like any reputable brand, Medterra orders comprehensive third-party tests of its products and posts the results on its website.

On top of that, it holds U.S. Hemp Authority certification, which signifies adherence to strict hemp manufacturing quality standards. 

If you’re looking for tinctures made with pure CBD, Medterra is an excellent choice. Its CBD oil comes in three potencies, making it easy to find the strength that matches your needs:

  • 17 mg/ml (500 mg total)
  • 33 mg/ml (1000 mg total)
  • 100 mg/ml (3000 mg total)

These CBD oils contain only two pure ingredients: CBD isolate and coconut-derived MCT oil. Apart from relieving pain, Medterra is found to have comparable impact on Parkinson’s disease. Seek for the best CBD oil for Parkinson’s disease in here.

Joy Organics CBD Oil

Joy Organics CBD Oil

Thanks to its broad-spectrum formula, Joy Organics is a solid choice when you want to maximize the benefits of CBD while completely avoiding THC.

  • THC-free, broad-spectrum formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Colorado hemp
  • Four potencies and flavors
  • Low levels of minor cannabinoids
  • Lacks high-potency options

See Joy Organics Reviews

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Joy Organics is unique for only offering THC-free CBD products. All of them contain broad-spectrum CBD extract, which carries all of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial hemp compounds but with zero THC.

This extract is optimal for enhancing CBD’s beneficial impact without having to worry about THC.

The company is family-run and sources its CBD products from organic hemp grown in Colorado. Like any reputable brand, it publishes comprehensive third-party lab test reports for everyone to see.

The company’s CBD oil contains 225-1350 mg of CBD per 30 ml bottle, and is available in four potencies:

  • 7.5 mg/ml
  • 15 mg/ml
  • 30 mg/ml
  • 45 mg/ml

It’s formulated with virgin olive oil and comes in four flavors: natural, tranquil mint, summer lemon, and orange bliss.

Endoca Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

Endoca CBD Oil

Overall, Endoca is one of the best CBD oil providers thanks to its experience, quality control, and exceptional full-spectrum formula.

  • Full-spectrum formula rich in minor cannabinoids
  • Grows and extracts its own hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party and in-house testing
  • Two formulations
  • Strong earthy flavor
  • Only two potencies

See Endoca Reviews

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Founded in 2010 in Denmark, Endoca is one of the world’s oldest and most reputable CBD companies.

Unlike most brands, Endoca controls each step of the process from seed to bottle. It starts by growing and testing its own organic, non-GMO hemp in Denmark. 

Then, the hemp is extracted with CO2 to make a high-quality full-spectrum extract rich in all of the plant’s cannabinoids, including minor ones such as CBC and CBG, as well as terpenes and other beneficial compounds.

Finally, Endoca tests its finished products two times, in-house and through a third-party lab, to verify their potency and safety.

Endoca’s full-spectrum CBD oils are available in regular (30 mg/ml, 300 mg total) and high potencies (150 mg/ml, 1500 mg total). Even people with high dosage requirements will be satisfied with these options. 

This CBD oil contains hemp seed oil, giving it a strong, natural taste. It’s also available in a special raw formulation which contains unheated hemp extract rich in CBDa, the original form of CBD.

CBDistillery Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

CBDistillery oil_1

If you’re looking for the highest-potency CBD oil, CBDistillery is a great option, especially considering its high quality and competitive price. 

  • Very high potency available
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • High-quality Colorado hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Lacks flavored options

See CBDistillery Reviews

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CBDistillery was founded in Colorado, the heart of America’s hemp industry, in 2016. Today, it’s one of the CBD market leaders thanks to a combination of superb products, great prices, and transparent business practices.

CBDistillery uses only organic, non-GMO hemp cultivated in Colorado to make its products. The company is also certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority, a program that requires adherence to strict hemp manufacturing standards.

As expected, all CBDistillery products are comprehensively third-party tested for potency and potential contaminants.

CBDistillery is an especially great option when you need high-strength CBD oil. That’s because its CBD tinctures come in five concentrations as strong as 167 mg per ml, which is one of the highest potencies you’ll come across. 

These full-spectrum oils contain coconut MCT oil and come in 30 ml bottles with a total of 500-5000 mg of CBD.

Penguin CBD Oil

penguin cbd oil

Penguin CBD is an excellent choice when you want pleasant-tasting CBD oil, thanks to its wide variety of delicious flavors.

  • Five pleasant flavors
  • THC-free, broad-spectrum formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Four potencies

  • Costs more than average
  • Not as established as other CBD brands

See Penguin CBD Reviews

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Penguin CBD is a relative newcomer to the market. The company offers CBD oil, capsules, gummies, and creams that are free of THC. 

They’re derived from organic, non-GMO hemp grown in Oregon and undergo extensive third-party testing so you know you’re getting exactly what you paid for.

Penguin CBD is a great option if you dislike the earthy taste of unflavored CBD oil. Its CBD tinctures come in natural, mint, citrus, strawberry, and cookies & cream flavors, making it easy to find the taste that suits you.

These oils are made with THC-free, broad-spectrum hemp extract dissolved in coconut MCT oil and contain 250-2500 mg of CBD. You can match your CBD dosage preferences with one of four low-to-high potencies:

  • 8 mg/ml
  • 20 mg/ml
  • 33 mg/ml
  • 83 mg/ml

Lazarus Naturals Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

lazarus naturals cbd oil-1

We recommend Lazarus Naturals to people on a budget; this brand offers an unbeatable combination of quality and price.

  • Exceptionally low prices
  • Large discounts for veterans
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Grows most of its own hemp
  • Multiple potencies, sizes, and flavors
  • Lacks extra high potency (80+ mg/ml)
  • Lacks 30 ml bottle size

See Lazarus Naturals Reviews

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Lazarus Naturals was established in 2014. It’s a popular CBD brand thanks to its competitive pricing and ethical business practices.

Lazarus Naturals offers incredibly low prices for CBD products without sacrificing quality. On top of that, it provides a 60% discount for veterans, low-income individuals, and people with disabilities.

Lazarus Naturals is an employee-owned company that grows most of its own organic hemp in central Oregon, making it one of the few brands to have complete control over the manufacturing process.

Lazarus Naturals has its products tested comprehensively by a third-party lab and publishes the results on its website. 

When it comes to the best CBD oil, Lazarus Naturals’ full-spectrum tinctures deserve a mention. 

This CBD oil is an all-around great product with an affordable price. It’s available in regular (20 mg/ml) and high strength (50 mg/ml), adding up to 750-6000 mg of CBD per 15, 60, or 120 ml bottle. 
It’s made with coconut MCT oil and comes in unflavored, chocolate mint, French vanilla mocha, and Yuzu citrus flavors.

PlusCBD Oil Drops

Plus CBD Oil-1

PlusCBD is a trustworthy brand with a long history and a reputation for making superb CBD products.

  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Self-affirmed GRAS
  • Comprehensive third-party and in-house testing
  • Multiple CBD formulations, potencies, and flavors

  • Lacks high-potency options

See Plus CBD Reviews

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PlusCBD was founded in 2012, making it one of the oldest CBD companies in the U.S.

If you’re looking for a reputable brand, PlusCBD fits the bill. The company goes above and beyond to ensure quality products. 

For starters, it sources organic hemp from Kentucky as well as Europe, because its hemp industry is much older and more developed than its American counterpart. 

It also tests all of its finished products in-house in addition to comprehensive third-party tests, both of which are available on PlusCBD’s website. 

Additionally, PlusCBD is certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority and was the first American brand to achieve the self-affirmed Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)[2] status, which is awarded for hemp extracts that pass rigorous safety testing. 

The company’s CBD oil drops are available in three full-spectrum formulations:

  • Raw, which contains unprocessed hemp extract rich in CBDa, the raw form of CBD
  • Total plant complex, which is a regular full-spectrum extract
  • Gold, which is a refined full-spectrum extract without chlorophyll and other inactive plant material

These drops come in potencies ranging from 8 to 27 mg/ml with a total of 250-1500 mg of CBD dissolved in virgin olive oil. 

They’re available in unflavored, peppermint, cafe mocha, and goji blueberry flavors. You can get them in both regular dropper and pump top varieties.


CBDPure CBD Oil_1

If you’re looking for full-spectrum CBD oil without any added ingredients, processing, or flavors, CBDPure is a solid choice.

  • Full-spectrum formula rich in minor cannabinoids
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Unflavored and mixed with hemp seed oil
  • 90-day satisfaction guarantee
  • Basic website that lacks detailed info
  • Low CBD potency

See CBDPure Reviews

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Established in 2016, this Washington-based company offers unprocessed CBD products without any added ingredients. 

According to the company’s publicly available third-party tests, its products contain full-spectrum hemp extract rich in all of the plant’s cannabinoids, including minor ones such as CBC and CBDV.

This extract is derived from organic hemp plants cultivated in Colorado and Washington. 

CBDPure’s CBD oil doesn’t have any added flavoring. It contains 300, 600, or 1000 mg of full-spectrum CBD extract dissolved in hemp seed oil. 

If you’re looking for a low-medium potency, full-spectrum CBD oil without any added ingredients, CBDPure is a solid choice.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

Yes, CBD oil and other CBD products became legal with the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill. However, there are some key points to keep in mind:

  • CBD products can only be made from hemp, a legal variety of cannabis containing 0.3% or less of THC, which isn’t enough to cause intoxicating effects
  • CBD is legal on the federal level but individual states can decide how they wish to regulate CBD
  • Hemp can only be grown by licensed farmers

Hemp-derived CBD products are also legal in many other countries, including Canada, the UK, and most of Europe. 

CBD’s legal status typically depends on how hemp and cannabis are regulated by the country. For example, some countries consider all cannabis, including hemp, to be illegal, which means CBD is also banned.

CBD Benefits: For Pain, Anxiety & Sleep

CBD has many potential benefits that can help with issues affecting virtually any part of the body. Having said that, the three most common reasons for CBD use are pain, anxiety, and sleeping problems such as insomnia. 

This isn’t surprising because both healthy individuals and those with chronic conditions can suffer from poor sleep, feelings of anxiety, and acute or chronic pain.

CBD’s benefits for these issues are backed by a growing volume of research evidence. Here’s a look at some of the main findings:

  • One study found that CBD reduced anxiety[3] caused by public speaking in social anxiety disorder (SAD) sufferers
  • Researchers believe[4] CBD can help with many different types of anxiety disorders, including SAD, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
  • Another study in people with anxiety and sleeping problems[5] reported improvements in the majority of the 72 participants.
  • In a study of adults with PTSD, CBD helped improved symptoms[6] and improved sleep quality.
  • CBD partially or significantly improved chronic pain[7] in kidney transplant patients.

Except for CBD oils, CBD gummies are considered a great product for anxiety and insomnia as well. Some of the best CBD gummies brand you can find in here.

CBD Oil For Pain

According to recent research[8], chronic pain and joint pain are the most common conditions people take CBD oil for.

Similarly, medical cannabis is a popular alternative treatment for chronic pain, especially when it’s associated with cancer, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and other serious conditions.

The popularity of cannabis and cannabinoids like CBD for chronic pain relief isn’t surprising because standard drugs — particularly opioids — can cause significant side effects. 

Worse yet, you can become dependent on them and suffer withdrawal symptoms when you discontinue their use.

There’s a large body of evidence[9] showing that cannabinoids such as CBD and THC have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties that can alleviate various types of pain. 

Although most studies have looked at whole-plant cannabis preparations, there’s also some evidence that pure CBD can be beneficial[10].

Researchers believe that CBD’s pain-relieving effects come from its interaction with your endocannabinoid system[11] and multiple receptors involved in pain regulation[12].

What Types of Pain Can CBD Help?

Theoretically speaking, CBD and other cannabinoids[13] can help all different kinds of pain, including inflammatory, neuropathic (nerve), and nociceptive (the most common type of pain, caused by damage to the body). 

This includes chronic pain related to health conditions such as arthritis, cancer, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and diabetes, as well as acute pain caused by a sports injury or any other damage.

CBD Dosage for Pain

There’s no established dosage of CBD for pain. 

The optimal amount is different for everyone and depends on multiple factors, including how much you weigh, your unique body chemistry, the type and severity of your pain, and the type of CBD product you’re using.

In most cases, the best approach is to start with a low dose[14] of about 10-15 mg and assess how you feel over the next few hours. If you don’t notice any pain relief, you can slowly raise the dosage over time until you find the amount that gives you the desired effects.

Side Effects of CBD Oil for Pain

CBD is considered a generally safe substance with only minor side effects.

Research studies[15] have reported that CBD can cause:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Tiredness
  • Drowsiness
  • Dry mouth
  • Low blood pressure
  • Lightheadedness
  • Changes in weight or appetite

Having said that, these side effects are usually mild and only happened in studies using high doses of pure CBD. That means the average person is unlikely to experience them.

How to Find a High-Quality CBD Oil

There are some key factors to be aware of when choosing the right CBD oil for yourself.

Consider The Extract Type

There are three main types of CBD:

  • Isolate, which is pure CBD without any other compounds
  • Full-spectrum, which contains all of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and other hemp compounds.
  • Broad-spectrum, which contains all of hemp’s compounds except for THC.

Full and broad-spectrum extracts are considered more effective than pure CBD because all of the components of cannabis (and by extent, hemp) produce an “entourage effect” by working together in synergy. 

This effect has been demonstrated by multiple studies. For example, one study found that epilepsy sufferers who used whole-plant CBD extracts[16] reported fewer side effects and required smaller doses than those using pure CBD isolate.

Check for Third-Party Testing

Due to a lack of regulation, there are many companies selling subpar CBD products. The best way to verify that you’re getting a high-quality, effective product with the correct cannabinoid levels is to only buy from brands that use third-party testing.

This type of testing is done by an independent laboratory and confirms the levels of CBD and other cannabinoids as well as the lack of contaminants. You should be able to view these tests before buying a CBD product. 

Never buy CBD from a brand that doesn’t offer third-party testing.

Check the Hemp Source

Look for brands that use organic hemp and clearly explain where and how it was grown. Ideally, your hemp should be grown in the United States or a European country. It’s even better if the company has an organic certification.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of over 100 compounds called cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant. CBD can interact with your endocannabinoid system and other parts of the body, producing beneficial effects.

Can CBD get you high?

Unlike THC, CBD is non-intoxicating, which means it cannot get you high.

Is CBD safe? 

According to research, CBD is a generally safe compound. Some studies have reported side effects, but they were typically mild and associated with large doses.

Is CBD legal?

CBD is federally legal in the U.S. if it’s sourced from hemp, a low-THC variety of cannabis. The legal status of CBD in other countries varies depending on how they regulate hemp and cannabis.

What is CBD used for?

The vast majority of people take CBD products to help with pain, anxiety, and sleep problems. However, CBD has also shown potential beneficial effects for a long list of other symptoms and conditions.

How much CBD should I take?

The right amount of CBD to take varies between individuals. The best approach is to start with a low dose and gradually raise it over time until you settle on one that provides the effects you’re looking for.

What is CBD oil?

True to its name, CBD oil is quite literally CBD extract dissolved in plant-based oil, like coconut MCT oil or olive oil. It’s taken by applying the oil under your tongue to allow for efficient absorption and is the most popular method of using CBD.

What’s the difference between hemp oil and CBD oil?

Hemp oil is made from the seeds of hemp and doesn’t contain CBD or other cannabinoids. In contrast, CBD oil always carries CBD and is made specifically from the flowers and other above-ground parts of the plant.

+ 16 sources

Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here

  1. Merriam Webster. “Tincture” definition. Available from:
  2. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2019. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). Available from:
  3. Mateus M Bergamaschi, Regina Helena Costa Queiroz, Marcos Hortes Nisihara Chagas, et al. 2011 [Feb. 9, 2011]. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Available from:
  4. Esther M. Blessing, Maria M. Steenkamp, Jorge Manzanares & Charles R. Marmar. 2015. Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders, 12(4), 825–836. Available from:
  5. Scott Shannon, Nicole Lewis, Heather Lee & Shannon Hughes. 2019. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series, 23, 18-041.
  6. Lucas Elms, Scott Shannon, Shannon Hughes & Nicole Lewis. 2019 [Apr. 1, 2019]. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series, 25(4): 392–397. Available from:
  7. L Cuñetti, L Manzo, R Peyraube, J Arnaiz, L Curi, S Orihuela. 2018. Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay, 50(2), 461-464. Available from:
  8. Jamie Corroon & Joy A. Phillips. 2018. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users, 3(1): 152–161. Available from:
  9. Penny F. Whiting, Robert F. Wolff, Sohan Deshpande, et al. 2015. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Cannabinoids for Medical Use. Available from:
  10. D.C. Hammell, L.P. Zhang, F. Ma, S.M. Abshire, S.L. McIlwrath, A.L. Stinchcomb & K.N. Westlund. 2016. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis, 20(6): 936–948. Available from:
  11. James J Burston, Stephen G Woodhams. 2013 [Oct. 22, 2013]. Endocannabinoid system and pain: an introduction, 73(1), 106-17. Available from:
  12. Danilo De Gregorio, Ryan J McLaughlin, Luca Posa, et al. 2019. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain, 160(1), 136-150. Available from:
  13. Sonja Vučković, Dragana Srebro, Katarina Savić Vujović, Čedomir Vučetić & Milica Prostran. 2018 [Nov. 13, 2018]. Cannabinoids and Pain: New Insights From Old Molecules. Available from:
  14. Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis & Jennifer Schneider. 2018. The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids, 84(11), 2477-2482. Available from:
  15. Marilyn A. Huestis, Renata Solimini, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici, Jeremy Carlier & Francesco Paolo Busardò. 2019 . Cannabidiol Adverse Effects and Toxicity. Available from:
  16. Fabricio A. Pamplona, Lorenzo Rolim da Silva & Ana Carolina Coan. 2018 [Sep. 12, 2018]. Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis. Available from:

Medically reviewed by:

Gleb Oleinik is a CBD journalist from Vancouver, Canada with a passion for educating people about the benefits of CBD. He’s read thousands of research studies about CBD and other supplements, helping him translate complex scientific ideas into plain language. When he’s not writing, Gleb likes to spend his time in the gym, out in nature, and working on his website projects.

Medically reviewed by:

PubMed Central

Database From National Institute Of Health

U.S National Library of Medicine
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