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Best CBD Oil 2024: Top 10 CBD Brands Reviewed & Buyer’s Guide

Lindsey Desoto

Updated on - Written by
Medically reviewed by Dr G. Michael DiLeo, MD

All articles are produced independently. When you click our links for purchasing products, we earn an affiliate commission. Learn more about how we earn revenue by reading our advertise disclaimer.

CBDfx CBD + CBN Oil Calming Tincture

CBDfx CBD + CBN Oil Calming Tincture

  • Includes CBN for relaxation.
  • Third-party tested with a COA.
  • Four potencies.

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Spruce CBD Oil

Spruce Lab Grade CBD Oil

  • Third-party tested with a COA.
  • Medium potency.
  • Made with an heirloom strain of hemp.

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Joy Organics

Joy Organics Broad Spectrum CBD Tincture

  • Certified organic.
  • THC-free.
  • Third-party tested with a COA.

Check Price

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The market for cannabidiol, or CBD, products has grown considerably over the past few years, and for a good reason. But with hundreds, maybe even thousands of CBD oils available, it can be challenging to know which one to choose. 

Whether you’re searching for the best CBD oil for adult seizures, fibromyalgia, degenerative disc disease, or anxiety — we’ve got you covered.

In this article, we’ll explain CBD oil’s benefits and potential risks. We’ll also tell you how to choose the best CBD oil and discuss some of the best brands on the market.

Best CBD Oil On The Market In (May. 2024)

What Is CBD Oil?

CBD oil is made by extracting cannabidiol from the flowers, leaves, and stalks of a hemp plant. Once the CBD is extracted, it is combined with a carrier oil like hemp, olive, coconut, or medium-chain triglyceride oil to increase absorption.  

Unlike delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, i.e.THC, CBD does not produce the proverbial high or feelings of euphoria.

10 Best CBD Products To Buy On The Market For 2024

CBDfx CBD + CBN Oil Calming Tincture

CBDfx CBD + CBN Oil Calming Tincture

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See CBDfx Reviews

CBDfx CBD + CBN Oil Calming Tincture contains full-spectrum CBD oil, CBN, and a terpene blend to help you relax.

  • Includes CBN to promote relaxation.
  • Carbon dioxide, i.e., CO2 extraction.
  • Third-party tested with a COA.
  • Lacks flavor options.
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want a THC-free product.

CBDfx CBD + CBN Oil Calming Tincture features full-spectrum CBD and cannabinol,[1] or CBN, a relaxation-inducing cannabinoid found in the Cannabis sativa plant. It has a citrusy flavor with no hempy aftertaste.

Full-spectrum CBD includes numerous naturally occurring cannabis extracts, including terpenes,[2] essential oils, and other cannabinoids.

Products sold by CBDfx are made in the United States cruelty-free and vegan. They also undergo rigorous third-party tests to determine their cannabinoid profile and check for the presence of mycotoxins, residual solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, microbes, and other foreign materials. 

Test results are publicly documented with a certificate of analysis or COA.

A 30-milliliter bottle of CBDfx CBD + CBN Oil Calming Tincture with 1,000 milligrams of CBD contains 33 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving and costs $69.99. 

Tinctures containing 2,000 milligrams, 4,000 milligrams, and 6,000 milligrams of CBD are also available and cost $99.99, $149.99, and $179.99, respectively.

Products sold by CBDfx come with a 60-day money-back guarantee.

Spruce Lab Grade CBD Oil

Spruce CBD Oil

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Spruce CBD Reviews

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil is a high-quality oil made from full-spectrum CBD oil that comes with a generous return policy.

  • Third-party tested with a COA.
  • Made with an heirloom strain of hemp.
  • Generous return policy for first-time customers.
  • Only one flavor option.
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want THC-free product.
  • Results of third-party testing are not easily accessible.

Spruce is known for their high-quality CBD products made from an heirloom strain of U.S.-grown hemp with a unique terpene profile. All CBD oil sold by Spruce is extracted using a moonshine extraction method.[3]

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil contains 25 milligrams of full-spectrum CBD oil per 1-milliliter serving and has a delicious peppermint flavor.

This CBD oil is free of gluten and artificial preservatives, sweeteners, and flavors, although an ingredient list is difficult to find on their website. It is third-party tested for potency and microbial contaminants, residual solvents, pesticides, heavy metals, and mycotoxins. Current COAs are also publicly available on the company’s website.

A 30-milliliter bottle contains 750 milligrams of lab-grade CBD oil and costs $89.00. Discounts are available for recurring orders. First-time customers can return an empty or partially empty container within 30 days for a full refund.

Joy Organics Broad Spectrum CBD Tincture

Joy Organics Broad Spectrum CBD Tincture

Check Price

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Joy Organics Reviews

Joy Organics Broad Spectrum CBD Tincture contains various beneficial compounds from the cannabis plant and is entirely free of THC.

  • Suitable for individuals who want THC-free products.
  • CO2 extraction.
  • Third-party tested with COA.
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture-certified organic.
  • Pricey

Joy Organics is a premium CBD brand offering USDA-certified organic CBD tinctures made from premium-grade hemp. 

One of the company’s best-selling products is its Broad Spectrum CBD Tincture in Tranquil Mint. This CBD oil features three simple ingredients — organic extra virgin olive oil, broad-spectrum hemp extract, and peppermint essential oil. 

Broad-spectrum CBD oils contain various cannabinoids and compounds from the cannabis plant. Unlike full-spectrum CBD oil, which may contain traces of THC, broad-spectrum oils are purportedly free of the mind-altering compound.

All products sold by Joy Organics are third-party tested for potency, microbial contaminants, mycotoxins, heavy metals, and pesticides. COAs are easily located on the company’s website.

A 30-milliliter bottle of Joy Organics Organic Broad Spectrum CBD oil contains 15 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving, or 450 milligrams per bottle, and costs $44.95. 

Bottles containing 900 milligrams, 1,350 milligrams, and 2,250 milligrams of CBD are available and cost $69.95, $89.95, and $129.95, respectively.

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Oil

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Full Spectrum Oil

Check Price

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Nuleaf Naturals Reviews

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Oil is made with full-spectrum hemp extract and comes in six different sizes to suit various budgets.

  • Third-party tested with COA.
  • Six size options.
  • CO2 extraction.
  • Easy to dose.
  • Unflavored.
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want THC-free products.

Nuleaf Naturals is unique from many other CBD companies because their CBD oils all contain the same concentration of CBD per serving – 60 milligrams per milliliter. This makes it easier to dose and keep things consistent.

Nuleaf Naturals CBD Oil is made with two simple ingredients — full-spectrum hemp extract and organic virgin hemp seed oil. This unflavored oil comes in six convenient sizes, ranging from 300 milligrams of CBD per 5-milliliter bottle to 6,000 milligrams of CBD per 100-milliliter bottle.

The bottle of Nuleaf Naturals CBD Oil containing 300 milligrams is ideal for beginners and costs just $19. The larger bottle containing 6,000 milligrams of CBD costs $249.99. Recurring orders are eligible for a 20% discount.

All products sold by Nuleaf Naturals undergo comprehensive third-party testing for quality and purity. COAs are readily available online for customers to access.

CBDistillery Full Spectrum CBD Oil

CBDistillery Full Spectrum CBD Oil 1000mg

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL15

See CBDistillery Reviews

CBDistillery Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains 33 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving, making it a good option for new or seasoned CBD consumers.

  • U.S. Hemp Authority certified.
  • Third-party tested with COA.
  • CO2 extraction.
  • No flavor options.
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want THC-free product.

CBDistillery is U.S. Hemp Authority Certified, a rigorous certification program that requires third-party audits and compliance with stringent standards. It is granted only to a handful of CBD companies in the industry.

CBDistillery Full Spectrum CBD Oil is unflavored and contains two ingredients, medium-chain triglycerides oil, and full-spectrum hemp extract. It is tested by a third party to assess its cannabinoid profile and ensure that it is free of heavy metals, residual solvents, mycotoxins, pesticides, and microbial contaminants.

A 30-milliliter bottle of CBDistillery Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains 1,000 milligrams of CBD, or 33 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving, and costs $60.00.

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 1000mg

20% Off Coupon: HC20

See Royal CBD Reviews

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil 1000mg is a high-potency CBD oil that comes in four flavors.

  • Four flavor options.
  • High-potency.
  • CO2 extraction.
  • Results of third-party testing are not easily accessible. 
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want THC-free products

Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains 33 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving and is the company’s second most potent CBD oil. It is formulated with full-spectrum hemp oil extract, MCT oil, and natural flavors.

This CBD oil comes in four flavors, including Vanilla, Natural, Berry, and Mint, to accommodate different tastes and preferences.

According to Royal CBD, all products are tested by a third party to assess cannabinoid content and check for the presence of mycotoxins, pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals. However, lab results are not publicly available online. You must request them directly from the company.

A 30-milliliter bottle of Royal CBD Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains 1,000 milligrams of CBD and costs $129.00. Discounts are available for recurring orders and bulk purchases. All orders ship free.

CBDPure Full Spectrum CBD Oil

CBDPure Full Spectrum CBD Oil

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See CBDPure Reviews

CBDPure Full Spectrum CBD Oil is one of the best CBD oils for kids or someone looking for a lower potency CBD oil with a natural flavor.

  • Natural, earthy flavor.
  • Low potency option.
  • CO2 extraction.
  • Third-party tested with COA.
  • No flavor options.

CBDPure Full Spectrum CBD Oil is available in three strengths and is made using just two ingredients, full-spectrum hemp oil and hemp seed oil. Oils are not flavored to allow for a natural, grassy, earthy flavor.

All products sold by CBDPure undergo third-party testing to assess cannabinoid content and check for the presence of heavy metals, microbes, pesticides, and solvents. COAs are readily available on the company website.

It must be noted that there is only one FDA-approved CBD product for children. Also, there has yet to be any proof that CBD oil in supplements is either safe or effective in children,[4] and it has possible side effects. 

A 60-milliliter bottle that contains 300 milligrams of CBD, or 5 milligrams of CBD per serving, costs $29.99. Bottles containing 600 milligrams and 1,000 milligrams cost $54.99 and $79.99, respectively. All products are backed by a 90-day money-back guarantee.

Exhale Wellness Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Exhale Wellness Full Spectrum CBD Oil

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Exhale Wellness Reviews

Exhale Wellness Full Spectrum CBD Oil is a decent choice for someone new to CBD products.

  • 30-day money-back guarantee.
  • CO2 extraction.
  • Made with all-natural ingredients.
  • COAs do not include results of testing for contaminants and the presence of other harmful chemicals.
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want THC-free products.

Exhale Wellness Full Spectrum CBD Oil is cruelty-free and made with all-natural ingredients. It’s also free of genetically modified organisms, additives, and preservatives. 

This oil is made with full-spectrum hemp extract and hemp seed oil and is third-party tested. COAs attesting to the CBD oil’s cannabinoid profile are available online. It must be noted that these COAs do not include test results for heavy metals, pesticides, or other harmful substances.

A 30-milliliter bottle of Exhale Wellness Full Spectrum CBD Oil with a potency of 20 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving and a total of 600 milligrams of CBD costs $35.95. Bottles containing 1,200 milligrams of CBD cost $66.95. All products ship free and come with a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Lazarus Naturals Full Spectrum CBD Oil

Lazarus Naturals Full Spectrum High Potency CBD Oil Tincture

10% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL10

See Lazarus Naturals Reviews

Lazarus Naturals Full Spectrum CBD Oil offers high-potency CBD oil at an affordable price. 

  • Third-party tested with COA.
  • Certified USDA organic.
  • Affordable.
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want THC-free product.

Lazarus Naturals grows, harvests, and extracts all of its hemp at the company’s farm located in Oregon. 

This full-spectrum CBD Oil is extracted using an ethanol-based extraction method and is certified USDA Organic.

This high-potency CBD oil is available in two different strengths and comes in a natural, earthy flavor, as well as Chocolate Mint and Strawberry Lemonade flavors. The classic Full Spectrum CBD Oil is free of additives and preservatives and contains organic hempseed oil, coconut MCT oil, and full-spectrum hemp extract. The flavored varieties are flavored using natural flavors.

Because of its high potency, it may be one of the best CBD oils to increase appetite. One recent systematic review[5] noted CBD tends to suppress appetite, although one exception in the 11 studies stated the opposite — that 600 milligrams of CBD per day might increase a person’s appetite.

All CBD tinctures are third-party tested for potency, pesticides, and heavy metals. COAs are easy to locate on the company’s website. 

A 30-milliliter bottle of Lazarus Naturals Full Spectrum CBD Oil that contains 1,500 milligrams of CBD, or 50 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving, costs $40. A 120-milliliter bottle that contains 6,000 milligrams of CBD costs $120. All products come with a 90-day money-back guarantee.

CBD Essence Full Spectrum CBD Oil

CBD Essence Full Spectrum CBD Oil 600MG

20% Off Coupon: Health20

With just 10 milligrams of CBD per 1-milliliter serving, CBD essence is one of the best CBD oils for those looking for low-potency CBD oils.

  • Nine flavor options available.
  • Full-spectrum CBD oil.
  • CO2 extraction.
  • COAs are outdated and do not include results of testing for contaminants and the presence of other harmful chemicals.
  • Not appropriate for individuals who want THC-free product.

CBD Essence is a small batch company that manufactures all products within 24 hours of shipment to ensure they arrive fresh.

Each 60-milliliter container of CBD Essence Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains 600 milligrams of CBD oil sourced from USA-grown, organic hemp. It also contains organic hemp seed oil and sunflower lecithin. It is sweetened using stevia and other natural ingredients.

Although stevia exhibits strong antioxidant properties, some animal studies[6] suggest it may alter the balance of bacteria in the gut microbiome. However, further research is needed to determine whether this gut microbiota alteration is beneficial, harmful, or neutral.

CBD Essence Full Spectrum CBD Oil comes in nine different flavors, including:

  • Cinnamon.
  • Grape.
  • Lemon.
  • Mango.
  • Natural.
  • Peppermint.
  • Spearmint.
  • Unsweetened.
  • Vanilla.

At this time, a Supplement Facts label is provided for only some of the flavor options offered, making it difficult to know what each product actually contains.

CBD Essence states all products are third-party tested for potency, pesticides, and herbicides. However, the COA published online only has lab results from cannabinoid and terpene testing. It does not appear this product was tested for heavy metals, solvents, pesticides, and other contaminants. 

Additionally, the COA available was completed in 2020 and is no longer valid.

Each tincture costs $67.00 and ships free. If you are unsatisfied with your purchase, you can send it back within 14 days for a full refund, minus shipping costs.

How Does CBD Oil Work?

Although scientists still aren’t exactly sure how it works, CBD oil is believed to work by interacting with cannabinoid receptors in our endocannabinoid system,[7] which plays a vital role in our central nervous system.

Studies[8] with depression illustrate well how the endocannabinoid system also regulates and controls many bodily functions, including memory, appetite, immunity, mood, metabolism, and sleep.

Benefits And Risks Of CBD Oil

Although more long-term studies on humans need to be conducted, current research on CBD has found some promising benefits. 

CBD’s ability to calm symptoms of anxiety and depression is perhaps one of its most well-known benefits. One 2022 study[9] on 90 individuals who used CBD to self-treat depression symptoms, such as depressed mood, anxiety, and insomnia, found that 86% said they felt better after CBD treatment. That said, there is still not enough data to conclusively confirm or dismiss the claim that CBD can treat depression and other mental illnesses.

CBD is frequently used to help manage chronic pain. While some studies[10] have shown promising results, research on CBD for chronic pain remains mixed, and additional human studies are needed.

In some cases, CBD can also be used to treat epileptic seizures. The only form of CBD approved by the Food and Drug Administration is Epidiolex,[11] which is used to treat two rare types of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and Dravet syndrome. Its use is approved for children.

CBD is generally well-tolerated, with doses of up to 200 milligrams daily being used safely for up to 13 weeks. However, it is not risk-free.

The most common side effects[12] of CBD include:

  • Dry mouth.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Lightheadedness.
  • Mood changes,[13] such as irritability.
  • Digestive upset, such as diarrhea or decreased appetite.

Signs of liver damage[12] have also been reported in people who have consumed high amounts of CBD oil, but this information is from post-marketing studies with the prescription form.

CBD is not considered safe to use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Animal studies[14] have shown that high doses of CBD in pregnancy can cause reproductive system problems in developing male fetuses.

It is also unclear whether non-prescription CBD products are safe for children.

Lastly, CBD can potentially interact with other medications[12] you’re currently taking, especially those with a “grapefruit warning.” CBD and grapefruit interact with an enzyme necessary for drug metabolism.

How We Choose The Best CBD Oil & Buying Guide

All CBD oils are not created equal. That’s why we prioritized CBD oils made with high-quality hemp extract and which are processed safely.

Here are a few things to consider when shopping for the best CBD oils.

Verify The Source

Avoid buying CBD from convenience stores and questionable vendors. Consider purchasing from reputable companies that provide information on growing and manufacturing practices. 

Check The Extraction Method

High-quality CBD oils use supercritical CO2 extraction, the least toxic method.[15] Ethanol extraction is also low in toxicity and preferred over more toxic solvents like hexane.

Look For Third-party Testing

Look for a trustworthy brand that utilizes third-party testing and provides testing results on its website. Review the type of tests conducted to ensure the CBD oil was tested for potency and heavy metals, solvent residues, microbial contaminants, mycotoxins, and pesticides.

Check The Type Of CBD Oil

Full-spectrum CBD oil is thought to be more beneficial than CBD isolate due to the entourage effect,[16] which theorizes that CBD is more effective when taken alongside other naturally occurring compounds in the cannabis plant. However, it may contain trace amounts of THC, which may cause you to fail a drug test. Broad-spectrum oil and CBD isolate, on the other hand, are entirely free of THC or contain less than 0.01% THC by dry weight.

Where Can You Buy CBD Oil?

CBD oil can be purchased at convenience stores, gas stations, specialty shops, and dispensaries. You can also buy CBD oil online. In addition to being convenient, purchasing CBD oil online allows you to view a specific product’s COA and read customer reviews to decide whether it is worth your money or not.

Final Thought

Although more human research is needed, the current evidence available appears promising. Before purchasing CBD oil, have a conversation with your healthcare provider to determine whether it is right for you.

It’s also vital to do your research and choose a product from a trustworthy brand that conducts third-party testing to ensure your CBD oil will be safe for consumption. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Is CBD oil safe?

CBD oil is generally well tolerated. However, it can cause adverse effects, such as diarrhea, dry mouth, fatigue, and reduced appetite in some people. CBD also has the potential to interact with other medications you’re taking.

Can I use CBD oil on a daily basis?

Unless otherwise instructed by your healthcare provider, CBD can be used daily.

Is CBD oil legal?

Yes. The 2018 Farm Bill[17] removed hemp from the Controlled Substances Act, which legalized CBD if it comes from hemp and contains less than 0.3% THC by dry weight.

Who should use CBD oil?

There is some evidence to suggest that people with anxiety, depression, epilepsy, chronic pain, arthritis, and post-traumatic stress disorder may benefit from using CBD oil.

Should I take CBD oil with or without food?

Taking CBD oil with a high-fat, high-calorie meal may help increase its absorption[18] in your body.

Can CBD oil impact the results of a drug test?

Some CBD oils contain trace amounts of THC, which can lead to a positive drug test.

How much CBD oil should I take?

Unless your healthcare provider recommends a specific dose, it’s best to start with the lowest dose and gradually work your way up over a few weeks until you find a dose that works for you.

What is the best CBD oil on the market for sex?

CBD oils from CBDfx, Spruce, Joy Organics, Nuleaf Naturals, and CBDistillery are all good choices as they may help reduce performance anxiety and increase blood flow,[19] which may help support stronger erections that last longer.


+ 19 sources

Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here

  1. Corroon, J. (2021). Cannabinol and Sleep: Separating Fact from Fiction. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. [online] doi:https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2021.0006.
  2. Sommano, S.R., Chittasupho, C., Ruksiriwanich, W. and Jantrawut, P. (2020). The Cannabis Terpenes. Molecules, [online] 25(24), p.5792. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245792.
  3. Lazarjani, M.P., Young, O., Kebede, L. and Seyfoddin, A. (2021). Processing and extraction methods of medicinal cannabis: a narrative review. Journal of Cannabis Research, [online] 3(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-021-00087-9.
  4. Wolff D;Reijneveld SA (2019). [Use of cannabidiol oil in children]. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, [online] 163. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31120211/.
  5. Pinto, J.S. and Martel, F. (2022). Effects of Cannabidiol on Appetite and Body Weight: A Systematic Review. Clinical Drug Investigation, [online] 42(11), pp.909–919. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s40261-022-01205-y.
  6. Kasti, A., Nikolaki, M., Synodinou, K., Katsas, K., Petsis, K., Lambrinou, S., Pyrousis, I. and Triantafyllou, K. (2022). The Effects of Stevia Consumption on Gut Bacteria: Friend or Foe? Microorganisms, [online] 10(4), p.744. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040744.
  7. Lu, H.-C. and Mackie, K. (2016). An Introduction to the Endogenous Cannabinoid System. Biological Psychiatry, [online] 79(7), pp.516–525. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.07.028.
  8. Gallego-Landin, I., García-Baos, A., Castro-Zavala, A. and Valverde, O. (2021). Reviewing the Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Depression. Frontiers in Pharmacology, [online] 12. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.762738.
  9. Wieckiewicz, G., Stokłosa, I., Stokłosa, M., Gorczyca, P. and Pudlo, R. (2022). Cannabidiol (CBD) in the Self-Treatment of Depression-Exploratory Study and a New Phenomenon of Concern for Psychiatrists. Frontiers in Psychiatry, [online] 13. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.837946.
  10. Argueta, D.A., Ventura, C.M., Kiven, S., Sagi, V. and Gupta, K. (2020). A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain. Frontiers in Pharmacology, [online] 11. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00561.
  11. Office (2020). FDA Approves First Drug Comprised of an Active Ingredient Derived from Marijuana to Treat Rare, Severe Forms of Epilepsy. [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-drug-comprised-active-ingredient-derived-marijuana-treat-rare-severe-forms.
  12. Medlineplus.gov. (2018). Cannabidiol (CBD): MedlinePlus Supplements. [online] Available at: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/1439.html#.
  13. Office (2023). What to Know About Products Containing Cannabis and CBD. [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis.
  14. Office (2020). What You Should Know About Using CBD When Pregnant or Breastfeeding. [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-should-know-about-using-cannabis-including-cbd-when-pregnant-or-breastfeeding.
  15. López-Olmos, C., García-Valverde, M.T., Hidalgo, J., Ferrerio-Vera, C. and Sánchez de Medina, V. (2022). Comprehensive comparison of industrial cannabinoid extraction techniques: Evaluation of the most relevant patents and studies at pilot scale. Frontiers in Natural Products, [online] 1. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fntpr.2022.1043147.
  16. Ferber, S.G., Namdar, D., Hen-Shoval, D., Eger, G., Koltai, H., Shoval, G., Shbiro, L. and Weller, A. (2020). The ‘Entourage Effect’: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders. Current Neuropharmacology, [online] 18(2), pp.87–96. doi:https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159×17666190903103923.
  17. Abernethy, A. (2019). Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill. [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/congressional-testimony/hemp-production-and-2018-farm-bill-07252019.
  18. Millar, S.A., Maguire, R.F., Yates, A.S. and O’Sullivan, S.E. (2020). Towards Better Delivery of Cannabidiol (CBD). Pharmaceuticals, [online] 13(9), p.219. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13090219.
  19. Sultan, S.R., O’Sullivan, S.E. and England, T.J. (2020). The effects of acute and sustained cannabidiol dosing for seven days on the haemodynamics in healthy men: A randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, [online] 86(6), pp.1125–1138. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14225.‌
Lindsey Desoto

Medically reviewed by:

Michael DiLeo

Lindsey DeSoto is a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist based out of Coastal Mississippi. She earned her BSc in Nutrition Sciences from the University of Alabama. Lindsey has a passion for helping others live their healthiest life by translating the latest evidence-based research into easy-to-digest, approachable content.

Medically reviewed by:

Michael DiLeo

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Food Production, Processing and Nutrition

BioMed Central

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BMC Gastroenterology

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ACS Publications

A Division of The American Chemical Society

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Annual Reviews

Independent, Non-profit Academic Publishing Company

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PubChem

National Center for Biotechnology Information

National Library of Medicine
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PLOS Journals

Nonprofit Publisher of Open-access Journals

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Thieme E-books & E-Journals

Peer-reviewed & Open Access Journal

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European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences

Peer-reviewed International Journal Publishes

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Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing Home

Chemical Science Journals, Books and Database

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Frontiers

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De Gruyter

German Scholarly Publishing House

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Hindawi

Open Access Research Journals & Papers

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Oilseeds and Fats, Crops and Lipids

EDP Sciences

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Cambridge Core

Cambridge University Press

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FoodData Central

U.S. Department Of Agriculture

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Journal of the American Heart Association

Peer-reviewed Open Access Scientific Journal

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National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health

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The Americans with Disabilities Act

U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division

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Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

Organization of Food and Nutrition Professionals

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Sage Journals

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National Institute of Drug Abuse

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The ClinMed International Library

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The Royal Society Publishing

United Kingdom's National Academy of Sciences

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APA PsycNet

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The Pharma Innovation Journal

Peer-reviewed And Refereed Journal

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Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development

Peer-reviewed Bimonthly Journal

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British Pharmacological Society

Journals - Wiley Online Library

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American Psychological Association

Scientific and Professional Organization of Psychologists

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Karger Publishers

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Cambridge University Press & Assessment

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National Institute of Mental Health

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MDPI

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Bulletin of the National Research Centre

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The New England Journal of Medicine

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Economic Research Service

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MedlinePlus

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National Institute of Health

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The BMJ

Weekly Peer-reviewed Medical Trade Journal

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The British Psychological Society

The British Psychological Society is a charity registered in England

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National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

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PubMed

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DailyMed

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Google Scholar

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Science.gov: USA.gov for Science

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American Heart Association

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BioMed Central

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ODS

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Oxford Academic Journals

Oxford University Press

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Taylor & Francis Online

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WHO

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ScienceDirect

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Wiley Online Library

American Multinational Publishing Company

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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PubMed Central

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