The first study in the UK to explore the beliefs which influence the experience and practices of British Muslims’ diabetes management found tensions often exist between observing the important religious ritual in accordance with their faith and the competing need to manage their health.
Lead author Dr Neesha Patel, from The University of Manchester, said the research – published in the Journal Health Expectations – showed British Muslims with diabetes would like support and advice from their GP on fasting safely, providing their GP was trained, emphatic and understood the significance of Ramadan for Muslims with diabetes.
There are 3 million people in the UK with diabetes, and a further 850,000 who have undiagnosed Type 2. It is six times more common in the South Asian population and four times more common in the Bangladeshi and Pakistani groups than the general UK population. Recent figures suggest approximately 325,000 Muslims have diabetes in the UK.
Short-term risks of fasting include poor diabetes control and dehydration. Longer-term risks include a reduced quality of life and increase in mortality.
The research, funded by the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care Greater Manchester (NIHR CLAHRC GM), found many saw fasting during Ramadan as a religious duty which should be fulfilled by all Muslims in spite of living with diabetes.
Some avoided telling their GP or practice nurse they were fasting. While those who did inform their GP reported that they were advised not to fast but went ahead anyway because they felt they could control their diabetes or that their GP did not understand the significance of fasting during Ramadan.
The reluctance to disclose fasting was not influenced by the ethnicity of the GP. Regardless of whether the GP was Pakistani Muslim or white British some respondents still perceived their GP to have a lack of expertise to support them effectively during fasting.
Five type-2 diabetes patients interviewed who were on insulin did not fast and perceived it as a threat to their diabetes. But some patients reported receiving pressure from their family to fast as well as guilt and embarrassment at not fasting. Some reported eating their daytime meals in secret or when other family were not in the house.
Dr Patel said: “Although the Islamic law states that the ‘sick’ can be exempt from fasting for one or all 30 days, the majority of Muslim respondents with diabetes do not perceive themselves as ‘sick’ and therefore choose to fast.
“We found many British Muslims we interviewed did not bring the topic up with their GP or practice nurse or avoided their surgery altogether that month for fear of being told not to fast.
“The reluctance to disclose fasting to GPs or practice nurses has potentially serious consequences for diabetes control and future health. Non-adherence to daily diabetes regime may result in more Muslim patients suffering the risks and complications associated with diabetes, leading to poor quality of life and increased use of NHS health services.”
Professor Carolyn Chew-Graham, a Manchester GP and Professor of General Practice Research at Keele University who worked with Dr Patel on the study, added: “Our study shows the importance of considering patient experiences, especially when forming guidelines in this area and suggests a need for better training for GPs and practice nurses and with Mosques and community leaders.
“GPs and practice nurses need to ask patients if they intend to fast, and if they need information about how to fast safely. Health care professionals may also benefit from training and skills into providing culturally sensitive care, and patients also need to feel that they can discuss fasting openly in the primary care consultation.”
Jenne Patel, Diabetes UK Equality and Diversity Manager, said: “People with diabetes do not have to fast during Ramadan, although many will choose to and we know that for many Muslims it is a difficult decision.
“It is concerning that this research suggests that some Muslims feel uncomfortable in talking about their fasting decisions with their doctor or practice nurse and we need to send out the message that everyone with diabetes who is considering fasting throughout Ramadan should speak to their doctor, practice nurse and their Imam, who can help people come to the decision that is right for them.”
Notes for editors
For further information or to request an interview with Dr Patel, please contact Alison Barbuti Media Relations Officer, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences | The University of Manchester. Tel: +44(0)161 275 8383 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ramadan is important for practicing Muslims as it is one of the five pillars of Islam and the month in which the holy Quran was revealed. During Ramadan Muslim people only eat two meals per day, once before sunrise (sehar) and once after sunset (iftar). Between August 2009 and May 2017 Ramadan falls in summer or spring so that daylight lasts between 17 to 19 hours, increasing the number of fasting hours and posing difficulties for Muslims with diabetes that need to eat and take medication regularly to maintain glycaemic control.
The qualitative study reports interviews with 23 diabetic Muslims in Greater Manchester. For a copy of the paper which includes more quotes from anonymised diabetics, please contact the Press Office.
The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) is funded by the Department of Health to improve the health and wealth of the nation through research. Since its establishment inApril 2006, the NIHR has transformed research in the NHS. It has increased the volume of applied health research for the benefit of patients and the public, driven faster translation of basic science discoveries into tangible benefits for patients and the economy, and developed and supported the people who conduct and contribute to applied health research. The NIHR plays a key role in the Government’s strategy for economic growth, attracting investment by the life-sciences industries through its world-class infrastructure for health research. Together, the NIHR people, programmes, centres of excellence and systems represent the most integrated health research system in the world. For further information, visit the NIHR website (www.nihr.ac.uk).
About the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health and Care Greater Manchester
The National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health and Care Greater Manchester (NIHR CLAHRC GM) and brings leading clinical experts together with world class researchers in the University of Manchester whose know-how is linked with that of frontline healthcare providers and commissioners to develop and implement innovations in care for people with long-term vascular conditions. More information is available at http://clahrc-gm.nihr.ac.uk/.