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10 Best CBD Oil for Arthritis & Joint Pain – 2020 Product Reviews

Many arthritis sufferers use CBD as an alternative remedy for easing joint pain. We’ve put together a list of the best CBD oil for arthritis and a guide to help you get the most out of CBD.

Arthritis is a common condition characterized by joint pain and inflammation. The United States witnessed a significant increase in the prevalence of arthritis in recent years. Standard treatments typically focus on pain relief but aren’t always effective and can cause notable side effects.

As a result, more and more people are opting for safe, natural options such as CBD oil. Still, with so many products available and a lack of regulation, finding a high-quality CBD product can be difficult. 

That’s why we researched and compared numerous leading brands to find the best CBD oil for arthritis as well as the best CBD cream.

Here’s our list of the top 10 CBD oils and creams for this debilitating condition, based on the formula, potency, hemp source, third-party testing, pricing, and other factors.

Top 10 Best CBD Oil For Arthritis (November. 2020)

CBD for Arthritis

CBD oil and topical CBD products are an increasingly popular option for arthritis sufferers. Although more research is needed, early studies[1] indicate that CBD and other cannabinoids may relieve the pain and inflammation involved in arthritis. Some of the suitable CBD oil for pain can be found here.

This means CBD can help with symptom relief in common types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. 

Better yet, there’s some evidence that CBD may have a positive effect on the inflammation that causes some types of arthritis, which means it may help the condition directly. 

CBD can also offer indirect benefits for arthritis sufferers, such as improving sleep and mood-related issues.

In comparison, prescription drugs typically only focus on pain relief instead of improving the root cause of certain types of arthritis. They can also cause significant side effects and other issues such as withdrawal in the case of opioids.. 

Editor’s Choice

Take Spruce CBD

Spruce CBD

Why is it better?

  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Family-run business
  • High-quality, unique strain of hemp

Free Shipping and 15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Read Review Details

The Lineup At A Glance

Best Pure CBD

  • Pure CBD isolate formula
  • Exceptionally low prices
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified

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Most Natural

  • Full-spectrum formula rich in minor cannabinoids
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Unflavored and mixed with hemp seed oil

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Best Full-Spectrum

  • High-quality full-spectrum formula
  • Established, reputable brand
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

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Best Formula

  • Unique anti-inflammatory formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Kentucky hemp

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Best THC-Free

  • THC-free, broad-spectrum formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Colorado hemp

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Best Potency

  • Very high potency available
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • High-quality Colorado hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

15% Off Coupon: “GREEN15”

Best Value

  • Exceptionally low prices
  • Large discounts for veterans
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

Best Quality Control

  • High-quality full-spectrum formula
  • Grows its own hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party and in-house testing

10% Off Coupon: “BESTCBD10”

Best Topical

  • Special arthritis formula
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

20% Off Coupon: “CWEB10”

10 Best CBD Oil for Arthritis Reviews (& Cream)

Spruce CBD

Take Spruce CBD

For those who don’t mind paying a little more for high-quality CBD from a family-run company with hundreds of satisfied customers, Spruce CBD is a solid pick.

  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Family-run business
  • High-quality, unique strain of American hemp
  • Costs more than average
  • Only two potencies

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Spruce CBD was founded in North Carolina in 2018. The company stands out for being a relatively small, family-run business and having hundreds of satisfied customer reviews.

Spruce sources its CBD products from a 200-year-old strain of hemp grown organically in Kentucky and North Carolina. It uses a time-tested alcohol extraction process to create full-spectrum products rich in all of hemp’s beneficial components.

The company also posts detailed third-party test reports for everyone to see. Besides working well on adults, Spruce CBD is also safe for kids, which makes it one of the most popular choice on the market.

Spruce’s CBD oil comes in two strengths: regular, with 25 mg CBD per ml and 750 mg total, and high-strength, with 80 mg/ml and 2400 mg CBD in total. Both tinctures are formulated with hemp seed oil and the regular version is also flavored with peppermint.

The 2400 mg tincture may be particularly suited for arthritis thanks to its high potency.

Medterra CBD Oil

Medterra oil -2

Medterra is a top-tier CBD brand with competitive prices and is a particularly great option when you need pure CBD oil without any other active ingredients. 

  • Pure CBD isolate formula
  • Exceptionally low prices
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • No flavored options

15% Off Coupon: “OFFER15”

!

Founded in 2017, Medterra is a leading CBD company known for offering quality products at affordable prices. All of its offerings are completely free of THC and sourced from organic hemp cultivated in Kentucky. 

Medterra publishes detailed third-party lab test reports of its products. The company is also certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority, which means it passed a strict independent audit confirming that it follows strict hemp manufacturing standards.

Some people prefer to use CBD oil containing pure CBD (also called isolate) for arthritis and other conditions. In that case, Medterra is a great choice. It’s CBD oil comes in three strengths:

  • 17 mg/ml (500 mg total)
  • 33 mg/ml (1000 mg total)
  • 100 mg/ml (3000 mg total)

It has a straightforward formula combining CBD isolate with coconut MCT oil.

CBDPure CBD Oil

CBDPure CBD Oil_1

Some people prefer CBD oils that are as close to natural as possible. In that case, CBDPure is a decent option.

  • Full-spectrum formula rich in minor cannabinoids
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Unflavored and mixed with hemp seed oil
  • 90-day satisfaction guarantee
  • Basic website that lacks detailed info
  • Low CBD potency

Free Shipping and 15% Off Coupon: “HEALTHCANAL”

!

Washington’s CBDPure has been around since 2016. The company offers a simple yet effective lineup of full-spectrum CBD oil, capsules, and cream sourced from organic hemp grown in Colorado and Washington.

As demonstrated by the company’s third-party lab reports, the full-spectrum extract used in its products contains significant amounts of minor cannabinoids like CBC, CBDV, and CBG. 

That’s a sign of a high-quality full-spectrum product since these compounds add to the beneficial effects of CBD.

CBDPure offers a 60 ml CBD oil containing full-spectrum CBD extract blended with hemp seed oil and no other extra ingredients. It comes in three strengths:

  • 5 mg/ml (300 mg total)
  • 10 mg/ml (600 mg total)
  • 17 mg/ml (1000 mg total)

This isn’t the most potent CBD oil on the market. However, if you’re looking for a quality low-medium potency tincture made with pure ingredients, CBDPure fits the bill.

NuLeaf Naturals Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

NuLeaf Naturals CBD Oil

NuLeaf Naturals is one of the most respected names in the U.S. CBD industry, known particularly for its high-quality full-spectrum CBD oil tinctures. 

  • High-quality full-spectrum formula
  • Established, reputable brand
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Colorado hemp
  • Free shipping
  • Lacks flavored options
  • Only one potency

Check Price

30% Off Coupon: “SENIOR30”

!

Founded in 2014 in Colorado, NuLeaf Naturals is one of the leading CBD brands in the country. Until recently, NuLeaf sold only one type of CBD product — full-spectrum CBD oil — which highlights the company’s unrivaled expertise and a strong reputation. 

NuLeaf uses organic Colorado-grown hemp-extracted with CO2 to make its products, which undergo comprehensive third-party testing for cannabinoid levels and contaminants.

The test results confirm that NuLeaf’s full-spectrum CBD extracts contain the full range of beneficial cannabinoids.

The best CBD oil for arthritis should use a potent, full-spectrum formula, and NuLeaf Naturals certainly meets that requirement. 

Its CBD oil has a high potency of 60 mg per ml and comes in five bottle volumes ranging from 5 ml to 100 ml, with 300-6000 mg of CBD. It’s formulated with hemp seed oil without any added flavoring.

CBDfx CBD + CBG Wellness Tincture

CBDfx-Tincture

If you’re looking for a CBD oil designed for arthritis, CBDf’xs wellness tincture is a great choice because it contains multiple anti-inflammatory ingredients backed by evidence-based research.

  • Unique anti-inflammatory formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Kentucky hemp
  • Four potencies
  • Lacks regular full-spectrum formulas
  • Lacks flavored options

15% Off Coupon: “HEALTHCANAL”

!

CBDfx is an established CBD brand out of California. It offers many different kinds of CBD products with unique formulas, flavors, and other features that make it stand out from the competition.

CBDfx sources its hemp from organic farms in Kentucky. All of its products go through extensive third-party testing to verify their potency and safety. 

CBDfx’s unique take on CBD products can be seen with their wellness tincture. It contains not only CBD but also a large amount of CBG, another beneficial cannabinoid,

More importantly, this CBD oil carries two natural anti-inflammatory compounds that have been demonstrated to help with arthritis symptoms in research studies: coenzymeQ10[2] (CoQ10)- a rat-based study and curcumin[3] study in humans.

That’s why this CBD oil is especially suitable for dealing with arthritis. It’s available in four strengths:

  • 500 mg CBD/250 mg CBG
  • 1000 mg CBD/500 mg CBG
  • 2000 mg CBD/1000 mg CBG
  • 4000 mg CBD/2000 mg CBG

CBDistillery Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

CBDistillery oil_1

Many people with arthritis prefer a high-potency CBD oil for significant relief. In that case, CBDistillery is an excellent pick because it offers tinctures containing as much as 167 mg of CBD per ml.

  • Very high potency available
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • High-quality Colorado hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

  • Lacks flavored options

15% Off Coupon: “GREEN15”

!

One of the biggest names in the CBD industry, CBDistillery was founded in Colorado in 2016. The company offers a full range of affordable, high-quality CBD products with multiple strength options.

They’re derived from organic hemp grown in Colorado and tested by a third-party lab to confirm their potency, safety, and consistency. 

Better yet, CBDistillery is certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority, an independent certification program that ensures adherence to hemp industry best practices. 

The company offers four full-spectrum CBD oil strengths:

  • 17 mg per ml (500 mg total)
  • 33 mg per ml (1000 mg total)
  • 83 mg per ml (2500 mg total)
  • 167 mg per ml (5000 mg total)

This makes CBDistillery one of the best CBD oil options for people in need of a high-strength tincture for arthritis. These unflavored oils are formulated with coconut MCT oil.

Lazarus Naturals Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

lazarus naturals cbd oil-1

Lazarus Naturals is our top pick for people looking to get the most value when buying CBD oil.

  • Exceptionally low prices
  • Large discounts for veterans
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Grows most of its own hemp
  • Multiple potencies, sizes, and flavors
  • Lacks extra high potency (80+ mg/ml)
  • Lacks 30 ml bottle size

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Thanks to its incredibly low prices, Lazarus Naturals is one of the most popular CBD companies in the U.S. More importantly, it manages to offer these prices while maintaining an exceptional level of product quality.

Lazarus Naturals even has a 60% discount for low-income individuals, people with disabilities, and veterans. 

An employee-owned company, Lazarus Naturals is one of the few brands that does all of its own manufacturing, starting with the hemp and ending with the finished product. Most of its CBD is sourced from organic hemp grown on the company farm in central Oregon. 

Lazarus Naturals’ full-spectrum CBD oil is a great option for arthritis. It’s available in two strengths:

  • Regular (20 mg/ml)
  • High potency (50 mg/ml)

These oils are formulated with coconut MCT oil and come in 15 ml, 60 ml, and 120 ml bottles. You can choose from five flavors: unflavored, chocolate mint, French vanilla mocha, and Yuzu citrus.

Endoca Full-Spectrum CBD Oil & Cream

Endoca CBD Oil_1

Endoca is a respected, established CBD company known for its outstanding quality control.

  • Full-spectrum formula rich in minor cannabinoids
  • Grows and extracts its own hemp
  • Comprehensive third-party and in-house testing
  • Two formulations
  • Established, reputable brand
  • Strong earthy flavor
  • Only two potencies

10% Off Coupon: “BESTCBD10”

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Denmark’s Endoca is one of the most respected brands in the CBD industry. The company has been around since 2010, making it one of the first to offer CBD products.

Endoca has a diligent approach; the company not only has complete control over the manufacturing process but also employs the most advanced, scientific methods available.

Endoca starts by growing hemp on its own organic, non-GMO farms in Denmark and extracting it using the industry-preferred carbon dioxide (CO2) method. 

That’s why its full-spectrum extracts contain significant amounts of minor cannabinoids like CBC and CBG, which multiply the beneficial impact of CBD.

Endoca tests its plants, extracts, and finished products in its in-house lab to verify cannabinoid levels, lack of pesticides, and even the amount of terpenes, another type of beneficial active ingredient. The company then sends its products for third-party testing.

When it comes to the best CBD oil for arthritis, Endoca is a great option. 

The company’s tinctures come in two potencies:

  • 30 mg/ml (medium), with 300 mg of CBD in total
  • 150 mg/ml (high), with 1500 mg of CBD in total

It’s also available in two formulations: regular and raw. The raw formula is unprocessed, which means it contains high levels of CBDa, another beneficial cannabinoid that converts into CBD when heated.

Charlotte’s Web CBDMedic Arthritis Ointment

charlotte's web cbd

Charlotte’s Web is a reputable company offering one of the only dedicated topical CBD products for arthritis.

  • Special arthritis formula
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Established, respected brand
  • Third-party test results only available after purchase
  • Only one potency

20% Off Coupon: “CWEB10”

!

Established in 2013, Charlotte’s Web is one of the giants of the CBD industry. The company was created by the Stanley Brothers, who developed a special high-CBD strain of cannabis they called Charlotte’s Web back in 2011. 

The company gets its name from Charlotte Figi, a young girl who found relief from seizures by using the Stanley Brothers’ CBD-rich cannabis strain. 

Charlotte’s Web offers a wide variety of CBD products sourced from organic hemp cultivated in Colorado, Oregon, and Kentucky. 

The company takes special steps to ensure strict quality control, such as testing the soil the hemp is grown in addition to comprehensive third-party testing.

That’s also why it’s certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority, which requires passing an independent audit and following stringent manufacturing standards.

Charlotte’s Web is one of the only companies that has a topical CBD product designed specifically for arthritis. 

Its arthritis aches & pain relief ointment contains 200 mg of broad-spectrum (THC-free) CBD extract alongside camphor and menthol: two popular topical ingredients used to relieve pain thanks to their soothing effects. This ointment is formulated with all-natural ingredients.

Joy Organics cBD Oil

Joy Organics CBD Oil

Joy Organics is a good choice when you need CBD oil that doesn’t contain any THC but still provides all of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial hemp compounds alongside CBD.

  • THC-free, broad-spectrum formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality Colorado hemp
  • Four potencies and flavors
  • Low levels of minor cannabinoids
  • Lacks high-potency options

Check Price

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!

Joy Organics is a family-run CBD company out of Fort Collins, Colorado. It differentiates itself by offering only broad-spectrum CBD products.

Broad-spectrum CBD is a type of whole-plant hemp extract that contains all of the plant’s beneficial cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other ingredients, but with zero THC.

In that sense, it’s ideal for those who want to get the most out of hemp while completely avoiding THC.

Joy Organics’ products are derived from organic Colorado-grown hemp. They’re comprehensively tested by a third-party lab to make it easy to verify their potency and safety. It is also found to be the best CBD for high blood pressure patients

Joy Organics offers broad-spectrum CBD oil in four strengths:

  • 7.5 mg/ml (225 mg total)
  • 15 mg/ml (450 mg total)
  • 30 mg/ml (900 mg total)
  • 45 mg/ml (1350 mg total)

It uses virgin olive oil as the carrier oil and has four flavor options — natural, tranquil mint, summer lemon, and orange bliss.

CBD For Arthritis & Joint Pain

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating cannabis compound that’s shown some promise in relieving the symptoms of arthritis.

Similar to its cousin tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD seems to have both analgesic (pain-relieving) and anti-inflammatory[4] properties that can reduce joint pain. 

Better yet, there are multiple animal studies and early human trials backing CBD’s anti-arthritic effects, as well as evidence that it might help with the underlying causes of inflammatory arthritis. 

Here’s a closer look at how CBD can help with different types of arthritis and tips on the ideal way to use it. You can also find a list of the best CBD for various types of pain here.

Types of Arthritis

Arthritis refers to joint pain or any type of joint disease[5]. There are many different types of arthritis but the two most common kinds are inflammatory and non-inflammatory[6].

Non-inflammatory arthritis, also known as osteoarthritis, is the most common kind. It’s caused by the breakdown of cartilage, the protective bone padding found at the joints. 

As the name implies, inflammatory arthritis involves some sort of inflammation. The most common example is rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune condition where your immune system mistakenly attacks its own joint tissue.

Gout is another type of inflammatory arthritis, caused by uric acid building up in the joints. Other examples include juvenile arthritis, reactive arthritis, infectious arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

How CBD Works on Arthritis Pain

CBD can relieve arthritis pain by interacting with your body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). 

Charged with maintaining a delicate state of balance called homeostasis, the ECS regulates essential processes, including pain, inflammation, immune function, and pain.

The ECS consists of endocannabinoids made in your body, the cannabinoid receptors they activate, and special enzymes. CBD can interact with the ECS by blocking the effects[7] of an enzyme that breaks down your endocannabinoids, supporting their beneficial effects.

Additionally, animal studies have shown that CBD may affect other systems involved in controlling pain and inflammation, such as TRPV[8], PPARγ[9], and adenosine[10] receptors, and the (NF)-κB[11] pathway.

Benefits of CBD for Arthritis Patients

There’s reason to be excited about CBD because it can help with arthritis on multiple fronts. 

To begin with, CBD can improve not only chronic pain but other symptoms associated with arthritis, such as difficulty sleeping and a low mood. 

Better yet, CBD may be able to address the underlying inflammation involved in inflammatory types of arthritis. 

Here are some of the key research findings:

  • A study of a synthetic transdermal CBD gel[12] in people with knee osteoarthritis found that some participants experienced a significant reduction in pain with men benefitting more than women.
  • A study of Sativex (a drug containing a 1:1 ratio of THC to CBD) in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers found that it improved joint pain and sleep[13]
  • A case report[14] reported that a 50-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and two other autoimmune disorders improved her pain, mobility, mood, and inflammation by using CBD oil
  • Studies in mice have shown that CBD can reduce pain and nerve damage in osteoarthritis[15] and pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis[16]

Is Cannabidiol safe? Side Effects and Safety

Although CBD can cause some side effects, it’s considered a well-tolerated compound with a good safety profile[17].

The possible side effects of CBD[18] reported in research include:

  • Tiredness and drowsiness
  • Diarrhea and nausea
  • Dry mouth
  • Low blood pressure
  • Lightheadedness
  • Changes in appetite or weight

However, researchers note that most of these effects were minor and only occurred when taking pure CBD in high doses, such as 300 mg or higher.

Since most people use much smaller amounts and often go with whole-plant products containing many other active compounds, your chances of experiencing side effects from CBD are small.

Topical CBD products are even less likely to produce side effects because it’s difficult for CBD to absorb deep enough into the skin to reach your blood vessels.

How Do I Use CBD To Manage Arthritis Pain?

There are multiple ways to use CBD for arthritis pain. 

Roughly speaking, you can take CBD internally, which will produce body-wide effects, or use it externally, which will only work in the area where it’s applied and is best suited for arthritis pain.

You’ll also need to figure out the right CBD dosage for yourself.

Using CBD Internally (CBD Oil, Capsules, Edibles, and Vaping)

The most common method of using CBD is sublingual — putting drops of CBD oil under your tongue. This method bypasses the digestive tract by avoiding stomach acid and liver degradation, which greatly enhances the blood levels and  the effectiveness of CBD. 

It also produces systemic effects, which is especially important for rheumatoid and other inflammatory types of arthritis. If you could only choose one product for arthritis, we’d definitely recommend CBD oil.

You can also use CBD capsules, edibles, and other oral products, but they’re not as effective as the sublingual route because they have low oral bioavailability[19], which means that only a small percentage of the CBD you take in this form reaches the blood.

Another option is to vape CBD, which will produce instant effects and has similar or better[20]   absorption than CBD oil. However, it also wears off much faster. And vaping has other potential risks to the lung tissue.

Using CBD Externally (Creams and Other Topical Products)

The second major option for arthritis is to apply CBD directly to the skin around the affected joints in the form of creams and other topical products. 

This is arguably the best choice if you’re primarily looking for pain relief because it will work only where you applied it.

In any case, it may be ideal to use both external and internal routes together, such as CBD oil and a CBD-infused cream. 

CBD Dosage for Arthritis

There isn’t one dosage of CBD that will work in all cases. We’re all different and the right amount of CBD to take will depend on how much you weigh, your unique genetics, the severity of your arthritis, and the kind of CBD product you’re taking.

Consequently, the best approach to figuring out your CBD dosage is to “start low and go slow[21] as suggested by health experts. That means taking a small dose (10-15 mg), seeing how you feel over the next few hours, and gradually increasing the dose over time.

Do this until you start experiencing relief and stick to that amount.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol or CBD t is one of the many naturally-occurring phytocannabinoids found in cannabis. CBD has many potential health benefits thanks to its interaction with your endocannabinoid system.

Can CBD get you high?

No, CBD cannot get you high because it doesn’t have any intoxicating properties.

Is CBD safe?

According to numerous studies, CBD is a safe compound with mostly mild side effects.

What is CBD oil?

CBD oil is a dietary supplement made up of hemp-derived CBD extract dissolved in a plant oil like olive oil or coconut MCT oil. You use it by applying drops of oil under the tongue so it can absorb directly into the blood and bypass the digestive system.

How much CBD should I take for arthritis?

There’s no one-size-fits-all dose of CBD for arthritis. Start with a small dose (10-15 mg), pay attention to the effects for the next few hours, and increase as needed.

How should I take CBD for arthritis?

Generally speaking, CBD oil is the best overall choice. However, topical CBD products may work better if you’re only interested in pain relief. Still, you’ll get the best results from using both methods together.

Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here

  1. Charles A Gusho & Tannor Court. 2020. Gusho CA, Court T. Cannabidiol: A Brief Review of Its Therapeutic and Pharmacologic Efficacy in the Management of Joint Disease. Cureus. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176325/
  2. Lee J, Hong YS, Jeong JH, et al. 2013. Coenzyme Q10 Ameliorates Pain and Cartilage Degradation in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis by Regulating Nitric Oxide and Inflammatory Cytokines. Rakonczay Z, ed. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3718733/
  3. Shep D, Khanwelkar C, Gade P, Karad S. 2019. Safety and efficacy of curcumin versus diclofenac in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized open-label parallel-arm study, 20(1) Trials.‌ Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460672/
  4. ‌Russo, E. 2008. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Volume 4, 245–259. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503660/
  5. Anon. 2020. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Arthritis. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/faqs.htm
  6. Shayan Senthelal, Li, J., Amandeep Goyal, Pankaj Bansal and Thomas, M.A. 2020. Arthritis. Nih.gov. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK518992/.
  7. Leweke, F.M., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, C.W., Hoyer, C., Klosterkötter, J., Hellmich, M. and Koethe, D. 2012. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 2(3), pp.e94–e94. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3316151/.
  8. Costa, B., Giagnoni, G., Franke, C., Trovato, A.E. and Colleoni, M. 2004. Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation. British Journal of Pharmacology, 143(2), 247–250. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15313881/.
  9. O’Sullivan, S.E. 2016. An update on PPAR activation by cannabinoids. British Journal of Pharmacology, 173(12), 1899–1910. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882496/.
  10. Mecha, M., Feliú, A., Iñigo, P.M., Mestre, L., Carrillo-Salinas, F.J. and Guaza, C. 2013. Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: A role for A2A receptors. Neurobiology of Disease, 59, 141–150. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23851307/.
  11. Kozela, E., Pietr, M., Juknat, A., Rimmerman, N., Levy, R. and Vogel, Z. 2009. Cannabinoids Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Inhibit the Lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-κB and Interferon-β/STAT Proinflammatory Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(3), 1616–1626. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19910459/.
  12. Hunter, D., Oldfield, G., Tich, N., Messenheimer, J. and Sebree, T. 2018. Synthetic transdermal cannabidiol for the treatment of knee pain due to osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 26, p.S26. Available at: https://www.oarsijournal.com/article/S1063-4584(18)30167-5/fulltext [Accessed 7 Nov. 2020].
  13. Blake, D.R., Robson, P., Ho, M., Jubb, R.W. and McCabe, C.S. 2005. Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology, 45(1), 50–52. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16282192/ .
  14. Shaw, C., Llc, T. and Marcu, J. (n.d.). Cannabidiol in the Management of Comorbid Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus, and Raynaud’s Disease. 1(1). Available from: https://www.rebelmd.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/AJEM_Shaw_Case-Study.pdf.
  15. Philpott, H.T., OʼBrien, M. and McDougall, J.J. (2017). Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. PAIN, [online] 158(12), pp.2442–2451. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28885454/.
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Gleb Oleinik, CBD Journalist
About Gleb Oleinik, CBD Journalist

Gleb Oleinik is a CBD journalist from Vancouver, Canada with a passion for educating people about the benefits of CBD. He’s read thousands of research studies about CBD and other supplements, helping him translate complex scientific ideas into plain language. When he’s not writing, Gleb likes to spend his time in the gym, out in nature, and working on his website projects.