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11 Best CBD Oil for Dogs 2022: Top Brands & Buying Guide

Markita Lewis

Updated on - Written by
Medically reviewed by Kathy Shattler, MS, RDN

All articles are produced independently. When you click our links for purchasing products, we earn an affiliate commission. Learn more about how we earn revenue by reading our advertise disclaimer.

Honest Paws CBO Oil for Dog

Honest Paws CBD Oil

  • Features condition-specific CBD oil
  • Offers CBD oils in different concentrations for pet size
  • CBD is organic, third-party tested, and premium quality

Free shipping & 20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Honest Paws Calm Soft Chews

Honest Paws CBD Treats

  • Treats are formulated for specific pet conditions
  • Treats are available as bites and hard chews
  • Products are organic and third-party tested

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

cbdfx 1000mg pet

CBDfx

  • Broad spectrum CBD (250mg-2,000mg)
  • Natural bacon flavor
  • Organic, Non-GMO, Human-grade & Vegan

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

It goes without saying that pet owners will do anything for their pets to make sure that they have the happiest lives. When it comes to taking care of pets, it can be difficult to find the right combination of things to make sure that your pet is feeling great.

Instead of medications that are costly and can cause a variety of side effects, many pet owners are looking for natural ways to support their dogs’ health. 

Cannabidiol (CBD) has become increasingly popular amongst dog owners to help their dogs deal with joint pain and arthritis, anxiety, seizures, and other symptoms.

We’ve rounded up some of the best CBD oils for dogs of 2022 that are on the market

11 Best CBD Oil For Dogs (December. 2022)

CBD For Dogs

Similar to humans and other mammals, dogs have an endocannabinoid system[1] that helps regulate internal homeostasis, or balance, in the body.

CBD and other cannabinoids derived from hemp can attach to the endocannabinoid receptors in the body, and researchers believe that CBD can potentially be beneficial for dogs.

The applications of CBD pet oil are diverse and can be given sublingually, mixed into food, added onto dog treats, or baked in infused edibles.

The Lineup At A Glance

Honest Paws CBD Oil

Editor’s Choice

Honest Paws CBD Oil

  • Features condition-specific CBD oil
  • Offers CBD oils in different concentrations for pet size
  • CBD is organic, third-party tested, and premium quality

Free shipping & 20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Honest Paws Calm Soft Chews

Best CBD Dog Treats

Honest Paws CBD Treat

  • Treats are formulated for specific pet conditions
  • Treats are available as bites and hard chews
  • Products are organic and third-party tested

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

cbdfx 1000mg pet

Best Organic

CBDfx

  • Broad spectrum CBD (250mg-2,000mg)
  • Natural bacon flavor
  • Organic, Non-GMO, Human-grade & Vegan

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Spruce CBD Dog

Best Overall

Spruce CBD

  • 100% natural pet product
  • Third-party tested with available report
  • Spruce is made in USA
  • It’s low in THC
  • No pesticides used to grow hemp

Free Shipping and 15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

CBDistillery oil_1

Best Budget

CBDistillery

  • Moderately priced CBD
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified and third-party tested
  • 60-day money-back guarantee

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Best Premium CBD

Royal CBD

  • Bacon-flavored full-spectrum CBD for dogs
  • CBD is third-party tested and organic
  • 30-day money-back guarantee

20% Off Coupon: HC20

NuLeaf Naturals For Pets

Best High-Potency

Nuleaf Naturals

  • CBD oil tinctures are available in high doses
  • Lab testing results are available for each product batch
  • Contains full-spectrum CBD from organic hemp

Check Price

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Holistapet CBD Cat Treats

Best Organic

Holistapet CBD

  • Large range of organic CBD concentrations is available
  • Brand has an advisory board made up of veterinary professionals
  • 30-day money-back guarantee

Check Price

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Medterra CBD Pet Tincture

Best CBD Isolate Oil

Medterra

  • Pet oil uses CBD isolate
  • Available in several flavors
  • Products are organic and third-party tested

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

charlotte's web cbd

Best for Older Dogs

Charlotte’s Web

  • Uses full-spectrum CBD oil
  • Available in flavored and unflavored varieties
  • Third-party tested and certified by the National Animal Supplement Council

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Just CBD Full-Spectrum Oil Tinctures

Best Tasting

JustCBD

  • Affordable CBD oil
  • CBD oil is available in 5 different flavors
  • COA available for each batch

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Top 11 Best CBD Oil For Dogs 2022

Honest Paws CBD Oil

Honest Paws CBD Oil

Free shipping & 20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Honest Paw Reviews

Honest Paws sells high-quality, organic CBD oil for dogs that are specific to your dog’s needs. Their CBD oils are combined with botanicals to provide additional benefits for your dog’s health.

  • Features condition-specific CBD oil
  • Offers CBD oils in different concentrations for pet size
  • CBD is organic, third-party tested, and premium quality
  • Certified by the National Animal Supplement Council
  • More expensive than many other CBD brands

Honest Paws was co-founded in 2017 by Chelsea and Erik Rivera after Chelsea turned to alternative medicine to help her puppy Baby Rose with her seizures.

Honest Paws makes condition-specific CBD products made with 100% pure spectrum CBD hemp oil. All ingredients in these products are organic, of premium quality, and third-party tested for purity.

Honest Paws has three main CBD oil tinctures to support your dog’s condition-specific needs. You can choose CBD oil for Calm, Mobility, and General Wellness. 

The Calm CBD oil features chamomile for relaxation[2], and the Mobility CBD oil has turmeric for reducing joint pain[3] from arthritis.

These CBD oils are dosed based on the size of your dog: 

  • Small (up to 25 lbs): 125 mg CBD, providing 4 mg CBD per full dropper
  • Medium (25-50 lbs): 250 mg CBD, providing 8 mg CBD per full dropper
  • Large (over 50 lbs):  750 mg CBD, providing 16 mg CBD per full dropper
  • Extra Strength: 1000 mg CBD, providing 33 mg CBD per full dropper

The price for Honest Paws CBD oils ranges from $39.95 to $99.95 per bottle.

Subscriptions for Honest Paws CBD oil can save you 15% on your purchase. All products have a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Honest Paws CBD Treat

Honest Paws Calm Soft Chews

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

Give your dog a treat that does more. Honest Paws CBD dog treats for specific conditions that come in different flavors and use high-quality organic full-spectrum CBD and botanical ingredients.

  • Treats are formulated for specific pet conditions
  • Treats are available as bites and hard chews
  • Products are organic and third-party tested
  • Some customer reviews state that soft chews are hard

Honest Paws is a company dedicated to making high-quality CBD products for pets. They have an extensive line of CBD products, including CBD dog treats. The treats can be a good option for dogs who don’t like the taste of CBD oils or don’t want to receive CBD sublingually.

Honest Paws has CBD dog treats for their Relief, Calm, and Mobility line of products. The Calm and Mobility dog treats are available as bites and soft chews.

These dog treats are specially formulated with natural ingredients to support your dog’s health and come in flavors like turmeric, peanut butter, poultry, and coconut.

Each soft chew or bite contains 5 mg of full-spectrum CBD, and it is recommended to give your dog 1-3 chews or bites per day depending on dog size.

Honest Paws Bites cost $24.95 per bag (contains 30 treats), and the Soft Chews cost $39.95 per bag.

Subscriptions for Honest Paws CBD dog treats can save you 15% on your purchase. All Honest Paws products have a 30-day money-back guarantee.

CBDfx

cbdfx 1000mg pet

25% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See CBDfx Reviews

CBDfx is one of the few companies that has high-quality broad-spectrum CBD oil tinctures available for your pet. It’s easy to find the best dosage for your pet in a flavor they’ll love.

  • Broad spectrum CBD (250mg-2,000mg)
  • Natural bacon flavor
  • Organic, Non-GMO, Human-grade & Vegan
  • According to customer reviews, the product may stain surfaces

CBDfx is a CBD company launched by Ali Esmaili and Jameson Rodgers in 2014 in California’s San Fernando Valley.

CBDfx’s pet products are third-party lab-tested and certified cruelty-free.

CBDfx uses broad-spectrum CBD sourced from organic hemp and MCT coconut oil in their CBD Dog Tinctures and Pet Tinctures. The CBD Dog Tinctures are chicken-flavored, and the Pet Tinctures are bacon-flavored so that you can choose a CBD oil in your dog’s favorite flavor.

CBDfx makes choosing the correct CBD dosage for your pet easy by having four different tincture potencies: 250mg (for small breeds under 20 lbs), 500 mg (for medium breeds between 20-60 lbs), 1000 mg (for large breeds that are 60 lb+, and 2000 mg (extra strength for large breeds over 100lbs).

Spruce CBD

Spruce CBD

Free Shipping and 15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Spruce Reviews

This is a full-spectrum CBD oil for pets of all ages. It’s highly potent and a similar grade to CBD oil for humans.

  • 100% natural pet product
  • Third-party tested with available report
  • Spruce is made in the USA
  • It’s low in THC
  • No pesticides used to grow hemp
  • Highly potent product
  • This can lead to drowsiness

The Spruce CBD oil is ideal for pets seeking relief and an easier time. Pets that suffer from anxiety and pain can take this CBD product to feel better. But, it’s good to consult a vet before giving them CBD oil.

Here you have a lab-grade full spectrum CBD oil containing organic coconut MCT oil. This is important to note for any pets with a coconut oil allergy. Still, your dog is experiencing zero high since this product has only 0.3% of THC.

Pets such as dogs experiencing pain from injuries or illnesses can benefit from taking full-spectrum CBD oil. The CBD product helps to decrease the pain[4] and offers relief without harming your pet.It’s also an ideal way to offer your anxious pets relief. Some dogs cry and whine because of separation anxiety. A few drops of CBD oil help calm them down[5] for some time.

CBDistillery

CBDistillery oil_1

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See CBDistillery Reviews

You can get high-quality CBD oils for your pet that are still affordable. CBDistillery makes that possible by having full-spectrum CBD Pet Tinctures made from the best extraction processes.

  • Moderately priced CBD
  • U.S. Hemp Authority Certified and third-party tested
  • 60-day money-back guarantee
  • Limited range of potencies available

CBDistillery was founded in 2016 with a goal to make high-quality and fairly priced hemp-derived CBD products for the public.

All of CBDistillery’s tinctures are U.S. Hemp Authority Certified, third-party tested, and have a Certificate of Analysis (COA) available on each product’s page.

The ingredient list for CBDistillery’s full-spectrum CBD Pet Tinctures is quite simple, only containing cold-pressed hemp seed oil and CO2 extracted CBD from hemp.

The CBD Pet Tinctures are available in two concentrations – 150 mg and 600 mg. The 150 mg Pet Tincture has 5 mg of CBD per 1 mL serving (full dropper), while the 600 mg Pet Tincture provides 20 mg of CBD per 1 mL serving.

The CBDistillery’s 150 mg CBD Pet Tincture costs $30 per bottle, and the 600 mg CBD Pet Tincture is $44 per bottle.

These CBD oils can also be ordered as part of a bundle. The Man’s Best Friend Essentials Sets come with CBD oil for you and your pet.

You can save 20% on your purchases by subscribing. CBDistillery products come with a 60-day money-back guarantee.

Royal CBD

20% Off Coupon: HC20

See Royal CBD Reviews

Royal CBD is a well-trusted, premium CBD brand that brings the same quality to its CBD oils for pets. Give your dog the royal treatment with Royal CBD pet oil. 

  • Bacon-flavored full-spectrum CBD for dogs
  • CBD is third-party tested and organic
  • 30-day money-back guarantee
  • Have to estimate doses for smaller and very large dogs
  • Limited range of potencies

Royal CBD is a highly-trusted CBD brand that was established by CBD oil advocates in 2018. All Royal CBD products are from organic hemp, extracted using supercritical CO2 extraction, and third-party tested.

If your dog doesn’t like the taste of normal CBD oil, Royal CBD’s Royal Paws CBD pet oil may be a game-changer. Their 100% organic, full-spectrum CBD oil is bacon-flavored for your dog’s enjoyment.

This CBD pet oil comes in two potencies – 250 mg and 500 mg. A dose of their Royal Paws CBD oil is one dropper (1 mL) and contains between 8.33 -16.66 mg of CBD per serving, depending on the potency chosen. Royal CBD does not have dosing information based on pet size, so you may have to guess or speak with a veterinary professional for more guidance.

You can save 15% on your purchase by choosing a monthly subscription. All Royal CBD products come with a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Nuleaf Naturals

NuLeaf Naturals For Pets

Check Price

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Nuleaf Naturals Reviews

NuLeaf Naturals is a cannabinoid wellness company founded in 2014. They are committed to creating premium cannabinoid products in their most pure and potent form.

  • CBD oil tinctures are available in high doses
  • Lab testing results are available for each product batch
  • Contains full-spectrum CBD from organic hemp
  • A limited selection of products specific to pets
  • Refunds are only for new, unused, and unopened products

NuLeaf Naturals use only full-spectrum CBD oil from organic hemp that has been third-party tested. To get the most potent blend of cannabinol and other beneficial cannabinoids, terpenes, and essential oils, NuLeaf’s CBD is extracted using a subcritical and supercritical CO2 extraction.

NuLeaf Naturals CBD Pet Oil is made with full-spectrum CBD and organic virgin hemp seed oil. Each drop of their CBD oil contains 3 mg of CBD.

You can purchase different sizes of this CBD oil tincture – 300 mg CBD, 900 mg CBD, and 1,800 mg CBD.

Holistapet

Holistapet CBD Cat Treats

Check Price

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Holistapet Reviews

CBDfx is one of the few companies that has high-quality broad-spectrum CBD oil tinctures available for your pet. It’s easy to find the best dosage for your pet in a flavor they’ll love.

  • Large range of organic CBD concentrations is available
  • Brand has an advisory board made up of veterinary professionals
  • 30-day money-back guarantee
  • Conflicting information about CBD type on Holistapet’s website
  • Expensive CBD product

Holistapet is a pet wellness company that is dedicated to providing natural remedies to resolve pet discomforts. 

All of their products are third-party lab-tested, vegan, non-GMO, gluten-free, dairy-free, and made with 100% natural ingredients. Holistapet even has a board of Veterinary Advisors to help guide the development of their products.

Holistapet stands out by having five different potencies of their CBD Oil for Dogs & Cats available:

  • 150 mg CBD for small pets under 20 lbs, 5 mg CBD per serving
  • 300 mg CBD for medium-sized pets 20-60 lbs, 10 mg CBD per serving
  • 600 mg CBD for large pets 60-100 lbs, 10 mg CBD per serving
  • 1200 mg CBD for extra large pets 100-160 lbs, 40 mg CBD per serving
  • 3000 mg CBD for pets over 160 lbs, 50 mg CBD per serving

There is some conflicting information on the product page concerning whether their products contain full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD oil. After calling Holistapet’s customer service line, it was confirmed that Holistapet uses full-spectrum CBD oil.

Medterra

Medterra CBD Pet Tincture

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Medterra Reviews

If you’re a pet owner who is concerned about any chances of THC toxicity in your dog, Medterra’s CBD oil for pets uses only CBD isolate to keep your dog completely safe.

  • Pet oil uses CBD isolate
  • Available in several flavors
  • Products are organic and third-party tested
  • Returns only available for new, unused products

Medterra is a well-trusted CBD product company that was founded in 2017 by Jay Hartenbach.

Medterra’s products are U.S. Hemp Authority certified, third-party tested by batch, and use CBD extracted from organically grown hemp.

Unlike many other brands, Medterra’s CBD Pet Drops are made with CBD isolate instead of full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD oil. This could be a great option for pet owners who don’t want to expose their pets to any traces of THC, which is present in small amounts in full-spectrum CBD oil products.

Medterra’s CBD Pet Drops come in unflavored beef and chicken so you can choose the best flavor for your pet. It is also formulated with organic MCT oil.

Medterra’s CBD pet oil is available in four potencies – 150 mg, 300 mg, 750 mg, and 1200 mg.

Charlotte’s Web

Charlotte's Web CBD Oil

15% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See Charlotte’s Web Reviews

Charlotte’s Web is one of the original and most trusted CBD brands on the market. Pet owners with older dogs rave about the benefits of Charlotte Web’s full-spectrum CBD oil for dogs.

  • Uses full-spectrum CBD oil
  • Available in flavored and unflavored varieties
  • Third-party tested and certified by the National Animal Supplement Council
  • No variety in potency

Charlotte Web’s CBD for Dogs is extracted from the same full-spectrum hemp extract used in their products from humans and is blended with MCT coconut oil.

Charlotte’s Web is also National Animal Supplement Council certified, meaning that they meet rigorous quality standards for pet products.

This full-spectrum hemp extract is available in unflavored and chicken-flavored varieties to meet your dog’s preferences.

Many of Charlotte’s Web product page reviews state that this CBD oil has worked great for older dogs with anxiety, hip, and joint issues and supports their overall health.

You can purchase Charlotte Web’s CBD for Dogs in a 30 mL bottle or 100 mL bottle. No matter what bottle size you choose, each provides 17 mg of CBD and other cannabinoids per 1 mL serving (1 full dropper).

JustCBD

Just CBD Full-Spectrum Oil Tinctures

20% Off Coupon: HEALTHCANAL

See JustCBD Reviews

Sometimes a plain-flavored CBD oil is not appealing to dogs and they need something more. JustCBD has a great variety of flavors available to make giving your dog CBD oil easier.

  • Affordable CBD oil
  • CBD oil is available in several flavors
  • COA available for each batch
  • Type of CBD used not listed on product page

JustCBD is a CBD company established in 2017 to improve people’s lives with convenient and effective CBD products.

All products from JustCBD are made with CBD extracted from organic and domestic hemp, and these products are third-party tested with COAs available on their website.

Just CBD has CBD oil products for cats and dogs, including oils and treats. JustCBD’s CBD oil for dogs comes in chicken, beef, and bacon flavors. According to the website, dogs can also be given the tuna and salmon flavors marketed toward cats.

Each flavor of the pet CBD oils is available in three potencies – 100 mg, 250 mg, and 500 mg per bottle.

The type of CBD used in the pet oil was not listed on the product page. This information was only available by looking up the COA, which showed that the CBD pet oils contain CBD isolate.

How Does CBD Help Dogs?

CBD products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any condition. The research on the CBD oil benefits for dogs is currently limited, but it may help relieve some condition-related symptoms.

Can Help Reduce Pain from Arthritis

A study[5] published in 2018 examined the effects of CBD in dogs with osteoarthritis. The dogs were given doses of CBD twice daily or a placebo oil for four weeks. By the end of the trial, dogs who received CBD oil had a significant decrease in pain and increase in inactivity.

May Help Improve Seizures

In a 12-week clinical study[7], researchers assigned dogs to receive CBD or a placebo to see if CBD combined with anti-epileptic medication was effective. Dogs who received CBD significantly reduced seizure frequency compared to the placebo. The study had a small sample size, and some dogs in the placebo group also had some improvements in seizures, so more studies need to be done to see what CBD can do.

May Reduce Stress and Anxiety Behavior

A small clinical study[8] of 24 dogs looked at the effects of CBD on stress-related behavior in shelter dogs. Dogs received either an olive oil placebo or CBD for 45 days. The dogs who received CBD had reduced aggressive behavior towards humans, but this difference was not statistically significant. Researchers still believe that CBD can help dog behavior in shelters.

Other Conditions

Veterinarians have observed that CBD can benefit other conditions, though there are no clinical studies to confirm these results. In a survey[9] of veterinarians, some veterinarians have observed that CBD may be beneficial for dogs by relieving acute and chronic pain relief, allergies, motion sickness, diarrhea, and vomiting.

Potential Side Effects

CBD is generally safer[10] than THC for dogs to consume, but some potential side effects are associated with ingesting CBD.

The most common side effects[11] seen in dogs from taking CBD oil include increased liver enzymes (specifically alkaline phosphatase), diarrhea, and vomiting[12].

Veterinarians and their clients have reported[13] witnessing some dogs with sleepiness and increased appetite after taking CBD.

If your dog’s CBD product has any THC in it, there is the risk of them experiencing THC toxicity[14]. The symptoms of THC toxicity include vomiting, urinary incontinence, slow heartbeat, inactivity, loss of muscle control, excessive drooling, and sensitivity to stimuli. 

It is known that CBD can inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may inhibit or slow the metabolism of medications, including pet anti-seizure medications[15].

If your dog experiences any significant side effects from taking a CBD oil product, take them to their veterinarian for treatment.

How To Choose The Best CBD For Dogs?

As CBD becomes more popular and easily accessible around the country, the number of brands will increase. Here are some tips to help you choose the best CBD for dogs in the growing CBD industry.

Check Ingredient Lists

First, check for the type of CBD used in the product. Most products are either made with broad-spectrum or full-spectrum CBD oil, but some contain CBD isolate. CBD oil products are also available in different doses, so choose the most appropriate dose for the size of your dog and its condition.

CBD oils for dogs should not contain artificial sweeteners, chemical additives, preservatives, or essential oils. Look for natural ingredients that are safe for dogs – common carrier oils include hemp seed oil and MCT oil.

Quality Assurance

When possible, look for CBD oils that are organic and have other organic ingredients. This decreases the potential exposure to pesticides and other chemicals for your dog. The best CBD oil for dogs will be third-party tested and may even be certified by entities like the National Animal Supplement Council. Websites should also have the product’s COA available for you to view to confirm the purity of your dog’s CBD product. 

Brand Reputation

The best CBD brands will have a good reputation with their customers and legal standing. Look for brands that are B Certified Corporations and don’t have any warning letters from the FDA. Good brands will also have high ratings on their website and on third-party websites. Brands that offer good return policies are also worth looking into. 

Price

It is always good practice to choose an affordable brand so that you can regularly purchase it for your dog. As you can see from our list above, affordable brands provide high-quality CBD oils, so you don’t have to feel pressured to buy the most expensive CBD oil.

Final Thought

CBD has a lot of potential in helping dogs deal with symptoms of pain and mobility issues, seizures, stress and anxiety, and more.

Our list is made up of brands that formulate some of the best CBD oil for dogs on the market. Use this list as a guide to help you figure out the best CBD oil to use for your dog.

Before starting your dog on a CBD oil or infused treat, speak with your veterinarian. Currently, the American Veterinary Medical Association[16] states that a veterinarian cannot prescribe your dog CBD oil, but they can discuss CBD with you. Depending on the state’s laws, veterinarians may be able to give CBD recommendations.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is CBD oil safe for dogs? 

Yes, it has been shown to provide a wide variety of health benefits ranging from general wellness support and anxiety relief to reducing seizure activity and slowing the spread of cancer.

Is CBD oil good for dogs with anxiety? 

Yes. CBD oil acts on the body’s endocannabinoid system to naturally soothe anxiety, stimulating the creation of serotonin which helps stabilize your dog’s mood.

Can my veterinarian prescribe CBD oil for my dog?

According to the American Veterinary Medicine Association, a veterinarian cannot prescribe your dog CBD oil. Individual state laws and licensing boards may allow veterinarians to recommend and/or administer hemp.

What are the side effects that dogs can experience from taking CBD?

Some potential side effects dogs can experience from taking CBD include diarrhea, vomiting, increased liver enzymes, sleepiness, and increased appetite.

Does CBD cause any psychoactive effects on dogs?

CBD is not psychoactive, so your dog will not be “high” from taking CBD.

Can a dog be given CBD daily?

Dogs can be given CBD daily. Read your particular CBD pet oil instructions for dosing information and recommended doses per day.


+ 16 sources

Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here

  1. Silver, R.J. (2019). The Endocannabinoid System of Animals. Animals, [online] 9(9), p.686. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6770351/.
  2. ‌Hieu, T.H., Dibas, M., Surya Dila, K.A., Sherif, N.A., Hashmi, M.U., Mahmoud, M., Trang, N.T.T., Abdullah, L., Nghia, T.L.B., Y, M.N., Hirayama, K. and Huy, N.T. (2019). Therapeutic efficacy and safety of chamomile for state anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, insomnia, and sleep quality: A systematic review and meta analysis of randomized trials and quasi‐randomized trials. Phytotherapy Research, [online] 33(6), pp.1604–1615. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31006899/.
  3. ‌Daily, J.W., Yang, M. and Park, S. (2016). Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Journal of Medicinal Food, [online] 19(8), pp.717–729. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27533649/.
  4. Kogan, L., Hellyer, P. and Downing, Robin. (2022). The Use of Cannabidiol-Rich Hemp Oil Extract to Treat Canine Osteoarthritis-Related Pain: A Pilot Study, [online] Research Gate. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lori-Kogan/publication/339698157_The_Use_of_Cannabidiol-Rich_Hemp_Oil_Extract_to_Treat_Canine_Osteoarthritis-Related_Pain_A_Pilot_Study/links/5e6030ad92851cefa1ded0c8/The-Use-of-Cannabidiol-Rich-Hemp-Oil-Extract-to-Treat-Canine-Osteoarthritis-Related-Pain-A-Pilot-Study.pdf.
  5. Morris, E.M., Kitts-Morgan, S.E., Spangler, D.M., McLeod, K.R., Costa, J.H.C. and Harmon, D.L. (2020). The Impact of Feeding Cannabidiol (CBD) Containing Treats on Canine Response to a Noise-Induced Fear Response Test. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, [online] 7. doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.569565.
  6. ‌Gamble, L.-J., Boesch, J.M., Frye, C.W., Schwark, W.S., Mann, S., Wolfe, L., Brown, H., Berthelsen, E.S. and Wakshlag, J.J. (2018). Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, [online] 5. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30083539/.
  7. ‌McGrath, S., Bartner, L.R., Rao, S., Packer, R.A. and Gustafson, D.L. (2019). Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, [online] 254(11), pp.1301–1308. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31067185/.
  8. ‌Corsetti, S., Borruso, S., Malandrucco, L., Spallucci, V., Maragliano, L., Perino, R., D’Agostino, P. and Natoli, E. (2021). Cannabis sativa L. may reduce aggressive behaviour towards humans in shelter dogs. Scientific Reports, [online] 11(1). Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33531559/.
  9. ‌Kogan, L., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Hellyer, P. and Rishniw, M. (2019). US Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, [online] 5. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6338022/.
  10. ‌Vaughn, D., Kulpa, J. and Paulionis, L. (2020). Preliminary Investigation of the Safety of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, [online] 7. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32118071/.
  11. ‌Brutlag, A. and Hommerding, H. (2018). Toxicology of Marijuana, Synthetic Cannabinoids, and Cannabidiol in Dogs and Cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, [online] 48(6), pp.1087–1102. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30342565/.
  12. ‌Mejia, S., Duerr, F.M., Griffenhagen, G. and McGrath, S. (2021). Evaluation of the Effect of Cannabidiol on Naturally Occurring Osteoarthritis-Associated Pain: A Pilot Study in Dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, [online] 57(2), pp.81–90. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33450016/.
  13. ‌Kogan, L., Schoenfeld-Tacher, R., Hellyer, P. and Rishniw, M. (2019). US Veterinarians’ Knowledge, Experience, and Perception Regarding the Use of Cannabidiol for Canine Medical Conditions. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, [online] 5. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6338022/.
  14. ‌Brutlag, A. and Hommerding, H. (2018). Toxicology of Marijuana, Synthetic Cannabinoids, and Cannabidiol in Dogs and Cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, [online] 48(6), pp.1087–1102. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30342565/.
  15. ‌Gilmartin, C.G.S., Dowd, Z., Parker, A.P.J. and Harijan, P. (2021). Interaction of cannabidiol with other antiseizure medications: A narrative review. Seizure, [online] 86, pp.189–196. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33541771/.
  16. American Veterinary Medical Association. (2021). Nevada veterinarians can treat patients with certain cannabis products. [online] Available at: https://www.avma.org/javma-news/2021-10-01/nevada-veterinarians-can-treat-patients-certain-cannabis-products.
Markita Lewis

Written by:

Markita Lewis, MS, RD

Medically reviewed by:

Kathy Shattler

Markita Lewis, MS, RD is a registered dietitian and a freelance health and wellness writer practicing in the Los Angeles area. As a clinician, Markita has several years of experience working with adult and pediatric patients in inpatient and outpatient settings. Markita has also conducted research in areas including diverticulosis, age-related macular degeneration, and cultural eating patterns.

Medically reviewed by:

Kathy Shattler

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