This article is reviewed by a team of registered dietitians and medical doctors with extensive, practical clinical and public health experience.
7 Best Multivitamins For Bodybuilding (Men & Women) 2022
All articles are produced independently. When you click our links for purchasing products, we earn an affiliate commission. Learn more about how we earn revenue by reading our advertise disclaimer.
Ritual Essential For Men
- Affordable monthly subscription
- NSF and cGMP certified
- Highly digestible capsules
Performance Lab NutriGenesis Multi
- Free from synthetic additives
- Best for muscle growth
- Can be a daily multivitamin
Optimum Nutrition Opti-Men Multivitamin
- Good brand reputation
- Long track record
- Boost prostate health
Bodybuilders, both men, and women have unique requirements for muscular growth, necessitating the use of specialized nutrition. However, gaining muscle mass must be done healthily. Regardless, a bodybuilder requires a nutritious diet that includes all vital vitamins and minerals, even if they use multivitamin supplements.
So, besides muscle growth, bodybuilding supplements aid in heart health, brain health, bone health, immune health, and even prostate health for men. And that is why it is vital to select the best multivitamin for bodybuilding to ensure it offers the body these health benefits.
This piece covers all you need to know about the multivitamin supplement for bodybuilding for both men and women. We also review seven products with all the essential vitamins and minerals that you need as a bodybuilder.
So keep reading to learn all this and more.
Best Multivitamins for Bodybuilding & Strength on the market in (December. 2022)
- Ritual Essential For Men – Editor’s choice
- Performance Lab NutriGenesis Multi – Best Everyday Multivitamin For BodyBuilders
- Optimum Nutrition Opti-Men Multivitamin – Best Bodybuilding multivitamin with amino acids
- Life Extension Multivitamin – Best Bioavailable Bodybuilding multivitamin
- Care/of Multivitamin – Best Personalized Bodybuilding multivitamin
- Evlution Nutrition Men’s Multivitamin – Best Bodybuilding Multivitamin with Phytonutrients
- Kaged Muscle Multivitamin – Best multivitamin for men’s bodybuilding
The Line Up At A Glance
- Affordable monthly subscription
- NSF and cGMP certified
- Highly digestible capsules
Best Everyday Multivitamin For BodyBuilders
- Free from synthetic additives
- Best for muscle growth
- Can be a daily multivitamin
Best Bodybuilding multivitamin with amino acids
- Good brand reputation
- Long track record
- Boost prostate health
Best Bioavailable Bodybuilding multivitamin
- Highly bioavailable ingredients
- Free from soy
Best Personalized Bodybuilding multivitamin
- Offers a personalized program
- Has an intuitive mobile app
- Traditional ingredient formula
Best Bodybuilding Multivitamin with Phytonutrients
- Contains bioavailable vitamin D3
- Contains phytonutrients
Best multivitamin for men bodybuilding
- Uses whole-food ingredients
- Third-party tested
Essential Vitamins Bodybuilders Need
Bodybuilders can’t depend entirely on whole foods and diets to provide all their bodies’ critical nutrients to maintain top form. Nevertheless, a healthy diet is a smart starting point.
Whole foods may not be enough, particularly because bodybuilders usually opt to avoid foodstuffs like fat, sugar, and carbohydrates to achieve better performances in competitions. Because of the restrictive nature of such diets, a bodybuilding supplement with a well-rounded multivitamin profile.
When it relates to nutrition and fitness advantages, optimal nutrition is crucial, and here are the essential nutrients that each bodybuilder needs and why:
The B-complex vitamin is made up of eight essential vitamins, all of which are listed below:
- Thiamin (vitamin B1)
- Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
- Niacin (B3)
- Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)
- Pyridoxine (B6)
- Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)
- Pyridoxine (B6)
- Biotin (B7)
- Folic acid (vitamin B9)
- Cobalamin B12 (cyanocobalamin variety is affordable, but methylcobalamin has higher bioavailability)
Because vitamin B12 is often present in animal products like dairy and meat, vegans are in danger of these vitamin deficiencies. Because the vitamins listed are water-soluble vitamins, your body cannot store them, and you must take them daily.
Many experts advise taking 100 milligrams (mg) of B-complex vitamins each day.
This powerful water-soluble antioxidant supports your immune health while reducing oxidative damage produced by strenuous exercise. It is necessary for connective tissue health, joint support, and protein synthesis.
Vitamin C Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) ranges from 15–75 milligrams for children to 90 milligrams for adults and 85–120 milligrams for expectant or nursing women.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin produced by the human body after sun exposure. Vitamin D supplements are essential for phosphorus and calcium absorption, musculoskeletal strength, and energy production. Vitamin D also promotes cell development and inflammation reduction.
The (RDA) for adults 19 and older is 600 International Units (IU) per day for males and women and 800 IU per day for people >70 years. The International Unit (IU) measures how much a mineral or vitamin should affect your system.
Vitamin E is a potent fat-soluble antioxidant that boosts immunity and preserves your blood vessels, heart, and skin, and keeps them in good shape. It is equally vital in various systems in your body like your brain health, cardiovascular health, and immune system function.
It’s often called alpha-tocopherol, but it comprises eight different components, which may be found in one product. If more than one component is present the label will say “mixed tocopherols.” The body preferentially uses alpha-tocopherol and that is the only form that can treat a vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E’s (RDA) is 15 mg per day (or 22 IU) for men and women aged 14 and up, including expectant women. Breastfeeding women require a little more, 19 mg (28 IU) every day. More than 90% of the U.S. population does not meet their needs for alpha-tocopherol per day.
Calcium is necessary for bone function and regeneration, muscle maintenance, hormone production, vascular health, and metabolism.
Calcium requirements change with time and a woman’s maternal condition; women aged 19 to 50 have calcium requirements of 1,000 mg/day but breastfeeding moms need 1300 mg per day and pregnant moms need 1000 mg. Women between the ages of 51 and 70 should take 1,200 mg. Men aged 19 to 70 require 1,000 mg; male adults aged 71+ require 1,200 mg.
Children from 0 to 6 months need approximately 210 mg for breastfed and 350 mg for formula-fed kids; babies 7 to one year need 270 mg; 1 to 3 years 500 mg; 4 to 8 years 700 mg; 8 to 11 1000 mg. Adolescents require 1,300 mg.
Electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and chloride are especially vital for athletes who deplete them through perspiration. These electrolytes help with muscular contractions and manage your body’s blood pressure, fluid level, and pH homeostasis.
The RDA of the electrolytes listed are
- Potassium: 4,700 milligrams (mg)
- Sodium: 1,500 mg
- Chloride: 2,300 mg
Red blood cell problems, which are essentially the inability of the cells to transfer adequate oxygen through blood arteries, can result from an iron deficit. And since these cells are responsible for supplying oxygen to muscles for numerous functions, iron is one of the key nutrients needed. For all age categories of men and postmenopausal women, the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) is 8 mg per day; for premenopausal women, the RDA is higher at 18 milligrams per day. The average dietary iron consumption for men is 16 to 18 milligrams per day, while it is 12 milligrams per day for women.
Magnesium is necessary to provide oxygen to your cells, minimize cramping, and enhance muscle protection during intense exercises and the muscle-building phase. It helps your body balance levels of hormones and process fat and protein, among other things.
For individuals aged 19 to 51, the RDA is 400-420 mg per day for men and 310-320 mg per day for women. Pregnancy requires 350-360 mg per day, while nursing requires 310-320 mg.
The thyroid gland, circulatory system, and body’s immune system benefit from this beneficial antioxidant. The RDA of selenium for adults aged 19 and above is 55 micrograms (mcg) per day. Correspondingly, pregnant and breastfeeding women require between 60 and 70 micrograms per day.
Red blood cell problems, are essentially the inability of the cells to transfer adequate oxygen through the blood
This trace mineral aids with speedier muscle recovery, improved immunity, and the generation of energy and testosterone support. The RDA for Zinc for adults aged 19 and up is 11 milligrams for men and 8 milligrams for women. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need 11 milligrams and 12 milligrams of zinc, respectively.
7 Best Multivitamins for Bodybuilding & Strength 2022
This formula is tailored to guys between the ages of 18 and 49. It comes in the form of a delayed-release gel capsule that only needs to be taken twice a day.
- The brand offers a convenient monthly membership package.
- The mint capsules are easily digested.
- It is cGMP (Current Good Manufacturing Practice), and NSF (National Science Foundation) certified.
- Free from synthetic additives and allergens.
- Support heart, brain, and immune health function.
- The brand offers free shipping.
- The nutrient list is shorter than that of other supplements missing calcium and vitamin C.
Multivitamin 18+ is manufactured with sustainable, non-GMO components in a vegan blend. It’s free of gluten and major allergies, and artificial preservatives and additives.
This bodybuilding multivitamin helps men’s health in every way.
It contains omega-3 fatty acids and Vitamin K2 for heart health. In addition, Docosahexaenoic acid, DHA is added for brain health; vitamin A, chelated zinc, and vitamin D3 are included to enhance immunological function.
Free shipping is included and a 30-day cash-back guarantee and the ability to unsubscribe at any time.
Performance bodybuilding multivitamin supplements are the best for daily use. It contains ingredients in the range of the RDA, none surpassing the daily recommendation.
- No proprietary blend nutrients, which is a plus.
- Gender-specific formulae that are precisely optimized for muscle function, development, and hormonal balancing.
- It’s safe to use daily for prolonged periods of time.
- No preservatives, chemicals, artificial colors, or allergens.
- No products are made with genetically modified organisms (Non-GMO).
- It is only available on the brand’s website.
- It is expensive.
These bodybuilding multivitamin supplements allow you to complement your diet with a wide selection of essential vitamins, minerals, and other elements in the proper amounts to help you achieve your dietary objectives and improve your overall health.
Because of the innovative manufacturing technique that the Performance Lab Multivitamin uses, your system may assimilate these essential nutrients more readily because they duplicate natural ingredients.
Vitamin A, C, D, E K1, and K2 are among the vitamins present. A blend of 17 vitamins and minerals makes up this formula. They are also infused with prebiotics for better digestion.
Optimum Nutrition Opti-Men Multivitamin
ON’s Nutrient Optimization System for Active Men is one of the best multivitamins for men’s bodybuilding. It combines 75+ active components into a 3-tablet dosage that may be consumed all at once or spaced out over the day.
- Optimum Nutrition has a specialized gender formula for men and women.
- The company has been in business for about 30 years.
- It is a worldwide brand.
- It supports mass muscle growth.
- It supports immunity, cell health, and metabolism.
- It contains proprietary blends, which means it does not fully disclose what the supplement contains.
- Contains soy.
- Nutrients contained are in excess of the RDA.
- The supplement label on the website is not large enough to be readable.
The formula offers fundamental levels of herbal ingredients that can be expanded on through a nutritious, healthy diet in conjunction with vitamins and essential minerals.
Optimum Nutrition has been recognized in 90+ nations for over three decades to deliver the highest quality in post-workout recuperation, pre-workout vitality, and ready-to-ingest sports nutrition.
Opti Men from Optimum Nutrition may increase your workout effectiveness, digestion, and testosterone production. It contains an amino blend with eight important amino acids, including glutamine, arginine, and branched-chain amino acids, BCAAs.
The bodybuilding supplement also contains zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, and Vitamin E, which offer immune support.
The Thai blend contains 75+ components in 4 performance blends, making it a highly potent multivitamin for active guys, including bodybuilders.
There are 25 vitamins and critical minerals in this supplement and 1,500 IU of vitamin D, and 1 gram of free-form amino acids.
The company also has a woman-specific multivitamin called Opti-Woman, an innovative mix supporting women’s general health and effective exercise regimen. The woman’s blend is one of the best multivitamins for women in the market.
Life Extension Multivitamin
The Life Multivitamin contains highly bioavailable ingredients. The makers purport that their formula is effective and scientifically backed.
- The ingredients included are of the highest bioavailable quality.
- There are no GMOs.
- There is no soy in this product.
- The vitamin K content is not efficient for bone and cardiovascular health.
- Vitamin A is present at levels of 167% of the Daily Value (DV), an excessive amount for a fat-soluble vitamin
As per the maker, the scientific multi-nutrient mix comprises a wide range of appropriately-dosed tocopherols, vitamins, carotenoids, minerals, and other antioxidants and beneficial chemicals.
Instead of manufactured folic acid, natural methylation folate is utilized in this bodybuilding multivitamin, along with Quercetin for boosting immunity and bioactive chromium to maintain your glucose levels. Using this supplement is easy. One bottle of multivitamins lasts for two months.
Vitamin A, C, D3, E, and Thiamin are among the vitamins present.
Care/of personalized multivitamins asserts that its supply chain is transparent. It claims to use high-quality, powerful, and environmentally friendly substances.
- The brand has a good reputation.
- Care/of multivitamins is a personalized bodybuilding multivitamin delivered to your doorstep each month.
- The formula contains all traditionally used nutritional ingredients.
- A personalized program is expensive since there is no set price.
The company has a time-honored grading system. Their ingredients have been utilized in herbal or traditional medicine for centuries.
Another noteworthy feature is the extensive research backing each ingredient.
People can take a questionnaire on Care/of’s website to help identify the best multivitamins ideal for them.
It inquires about your age, sex, location, and any health conditions you may have. It also inquires about your lifestyles, such as rest, the brain, cardiovascular health, gut health, or energy.
The company’s service may be suitable for anyone seeking supplement guidance, and the subscription feature may be useful.
Care/of sells the following items:
- Vitamins supplements: which include vitamins C, B, A, and C, as well as nutritional supplements and prenatal vitamins, are among them.
- Mineral supplements: Iron, magnesium, and zinc, are available, as well as “calcium plus,” which combines vitamins K2 and D.
- Organic herbal supplements: American ginseng, garlic, elderberry, and turmeric are examples of plant extracts used as herbal supplements.
- Probiotics: According to the firm, probiotics help balance the digestive tract by offering essential digestive enzymes.
- Special supplements: Fish oil, ceramide, and keratin are examples of the special supplements they supply.
Quick Sticks are single-serve vitamin powders that are small, portable, and fast-acting. The sachet contents are emptied straight into the mouth and allowed to dissolve before being swallowed.
Evlution Nutrition Men’s Multivitamin
The additional nutritional ingredients make it a complete multivitamin for overall health.
- Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) included in this multivitamin has better bioavailability than D2 (cholecalciferol).
- The addition of Bioperine boosts the compounds’ total bioavailability.
- Excellent value for money.
- Some users have attested that the tablets are too big and leave an unpleasant taste after swallowing.
- It lacks magnesium, which is necessary for muscle growth.
- It contains 200% of the DV for vitamin A, an excessive amount.
The well-known bodybuilding supplement contains well-balanced micronutrients like vitamins E, C, D3, A, B complex, copper, zinc, and copper. The nutrients help with superior efficiency, immunity, and overall health. Many of the nutrients are present in daily values far exceeding 100%.
The antioxidants, phytonutrient complexes, and enzymes in this supplement are beneficial to your metabolism, nerve health, connective tissue health, skin, and eye health. The vegetarian, gluten-free product comes in 60 servings.
Natural substances from botanical fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, and legumes are phytonutrients. The plant nutrients have health-promoting properties when combined with other vital micronutrients.
Vitamins E, D3, A, C, and K1 are the vitamins that are present in this bodybuilding multivitamin.
Kaged Muscle Multivitamin
Kaged Muscle Vitamin supplement is organic, keto-friendly, and Informed-Sport certified. A third party has evaluated the brand to verify that it doesn’t contain any forbidden ingredients.
- It’s keto and vegan-friendly.
- Each element included in the brand is sourced from whole foods.
- The brand is third-party tested and sport-approved.
- It contains a proprietary prebiotic in the formula.
- Low in Calcium and Magnesium.
Kaged Muscle also contains 100 mg of ACTIValoe, a prebiotic that helps with a healthy gut.
Kaged Muscle Multivitamin contains over 21 essential nutrients and ACTIValoe, a patented prebiotic. There are 60 veggie capsules in each container.
This multivitamin includes the following ingredients in one dosage (two capsules):
- Vitamin A as Beta Carotene from Sweet Potato.
- Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid and Chromium from Broccoli.
- Vitamin D as Ergocalciferol from Maitake Mushrooms.
- Vitamin E as total Tocopherol and iron from Spinach.
- Vitamin K as Phytonoclone and copper from Kale.
- B complex vitamins from sunflower seeds, spinach leaves, and Chlorella.
- Molybdenum, zinc, and magnesium from Pumpkin fruit & seed.
- Selenium and Pantothenic Acid from Shiitake Mushroom and from the sunflower seed.
- Magnesium from Aquamin Mg. (23% of DV)
- Iodine from Kelp blades.
- Calcium from Aquamin F.(5% of DV)
The Importance of Multivitamins for Bodybuilding
Bodybuilding multivitamins have a big job in ensuring a bodybuilder’s overall health. They have the following significant roles in your body thanks to these key vitamins and minerals they contain:
- Vitamin D, E, C, and A. These help with healthy muscle growth, tissue repair, and immune system health.
- Vitamin C, B-complex, Selenium, and Magnesium support gut health.
- Vitamin B1, Folic acid, and Vitamin C support brain health (motivation and willpower.)
- Iron, Vitamin D, C, magnesium, and potassium help heart health.
- Iron and B-complex vitamins support blood health.
- Calcium, vitamin K, C, E, magnesium, and boron support bone and joint health.
- Vitamin C, magnesium, and Iron may help with energy production essential for intense exercises.
How To Choose The Best Multivitamin for Bodybuilding?
There are many brands of bodybuilding multivitamins, so which is good for you? This is an excellent question that a qualified medical professional can respond to you.
Health professionals may not merely recommend any supplement without a medical evaluation to determine your needs. They may even run specific tests related to you being a bodybuilder to decide which nutrients you need the most.
Here are some of the things you need to look at for optimal health as you source the best multivitamin supplement for bodybuilding for both men and women.
Essential Micronutrient Availability
Try to receive a significant amount of most, if not all, of the 25+ key nutrients from your muscle-building multivitamin product. Since numerous nutrients work in unison with one another, you’ll need a wide range of nutrients to get the best results.
Micronutrients, despite their distinctions, frequently collaborate. For instance, Vitamin D supplements help your body obtain calcium from whole food instead of from your bones as it passes through your digestive tract. Vitamin C aids iron absorption.
Micronutrient interactions, on the other hand, aren’t always cooperative. Too much vitamin C, for instance, can interfere with your body’s capacity to absorb the element copper. Too much vitamin A can be stored in the fatty tissues and cause toxicity. Calcium and iron interfere with each other’s absorption.
Obtaining a diverse range of active components is preferable to obtaining a larger concentration of a single substance.
The RDAs (Recommended Daily Allowances)
Many individuals check to see if the crucial ingredients are included in the labeling, but they neglect to check to see if they are stated in the correct proportion.
Although a good diet should provide the majority of crucial minerals and vitamins, not all of them are digested through food, putting you at risk of deficiencies.
As a result, multivitamin supplements comprising 50% to 100% of your daily food requirement for each vitamin should suffice for overall health. Except for nutrients that don’t assimilate well, like vitamin D or B12, there’s no need for 300% to 500% of daily doses for every nutrient. And, there is a tolerable upper limit for nutrients, above which one should not go without adversely affecting one’s health.
Ingredients Especially Useful to Bodybuilders
A great multivitamin should only include high-quality nutrients for bodybuilders and sportspeople. Ensure the ingredient list includes additional secondary but equally important ingredients. And if it is a natural multivitamin, the better.
Minerals like zinc, calcium, and magnesium, for example, are good for increasing muscular stamina and recovery. Both male and female bodybuilders and athletes benefit from CoQ10 and omega-3s, which help to reduce muscular soreness, exhaustion, and discomfort.
With even extra creatine or whey protein, these additional helpful ingredients may make the difference between a good and great multivitamin.
Other important things to look at are
- Third-party testing.
- Dietary supplement certifications like NSF-sport.
- Additional ingredients like sugar, preservatives, and allergen traces.
There are numerous multivitamins on the market suitable for bodybuilding men and women. The seven supplements above are the best. However, you can also check out Orange Triad Multivitamin, Animal Pak, Signature Multivitamin, and MuscleTech Platinum Multivitamin.
Each of these supplements offers bodybuilders many health benefits that boost your gym performance. All thanks to the ingredients mentioned above, plus others like alpha lipoic acid that may boost muscle recovery. Or green tea extract that offers you better metabolic health.
The best bodybuilding multivitamins claim to be beneficial, but you should obtain medical advice before taking them. Also, check the ingredient profile and certification, and conduct your due diligence to select the best.
So, whether you choose Animal Pak Multivitamin or Ritual Essential, make sure you follow all of the instructions.
Frequently Asked Questions
It is not essential to obtain both a multivitamin and a fish oil supplement, but they can greatly enhance your diet together. Be aware, however, that omega-3 fatty acids are essential and must be obtained from the diet as we cannot make them.
The best time to take multivitamins for bodybuilding is in the morning with breakfast. This ensures maximum absorption. However, if you get stomach upset, switch it up and take it at night before heading to bed.
High doses of multivitamins can cause various negative effects, from moderate stomach irritation to serious liver and cardiac problems depending on the contents of the multivitamin.
Yes, you can. Just choose a bodybuilding supplement that supports a plant-based diet.
Both sexes need all nutrients the same; however, depending on age and specific phase in life, some may need more vitamins and minerals. For example, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women will require increased levels of various nutrients.
Vegan multivitamins are the ones that have a plant-based ingredient profile without any animal products or by-products.
+ 39 sources
Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here
- Nih.gov. (2020). Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin C. [online] Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/.
- The Nutrition Source. (2012). Vitamin D. [online] Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-d/#:~:text=Recommended%20Amounts&text=RDA%3A%20The%20Recommended%20Dietary%20Allowance,cause%20harmful%20effects%20on%20health.
- The Nutrition Source. (2012). Vitamin E. [online] Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-e/#:~:text=Recommended%20Amounts,mg%20(28%20IU)%20daily.
- Vitamin E (2014). Vitamin E. [online] Linus Pauling Institute. Available at: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-E.
- Nih.gov. (2012). Office of Dietary Supplements – Calcium. [online] Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/.
- Nih.gov. (2019). Office of Dietary Supplements – Potassium. [online] Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Potassium-HealthProfessional/.
- Center (2022). Sodium in Your Diet. [online] U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/food/nutrition-education-resources-materials/sodium-your-diet.
- Turck, D., Castenmiller, J., de Henauw, S., Hirsch‐Ernst, K., Kearney, J., Knutsen, H.K., Maciuk, A., Mangelsdorf, I., McArdle, H.J., Pelaez, C., Pentieva, K., Siani, A., Thies, F., Tsabouri, S., Vinceti, M., Aggett, P., Fairweather‐Tait, S., Martin, A., Przyrembel, H. and de Sesmaisons‐Lecarré, A. (2019). Dietary reference values for chloride. EFSA Journal, [online] 17(9). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009052/.
- Nih.gov. (2015). Office of Dietary Supplements – Iron. [online] Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional/.
- The Nutrition Source. (2019). Magnesium. [online] Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/magnesium/#:~:text=RDA%3A%20The%20Recommended%20Dietary%20Allowance,cause%20harmful%20effects%20on%20health.
- The Nutrition Source. (2020). Selenium. [online] Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/selenium/#:~:text=RDA%3A%20The%20Recommended%20Dietary%20Allowance,and%2070%20micrograms%20daily%2C%20respectively.
- The Nutrition Source. (2019). Zinc. [online] Available at: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/zinc/#:~:text=RDA%3A%20The%20Recommended%20Dietary%20Allowance,cause%20harmful%20effects%20on%20health.
- Medlineplus.gov. (2018). Omega-3 fats – Good for your heart: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. [online] Available at: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000767.htm#:~:text=Omega%2D3s%20and%20Your%20Heart&text=They%20reduce%20the%20risk%20of,slightly%20lower%20your%20blood%20pressure.
- Bellinge, J.W., Dalgaard, F., Murray, K., Connolly, E., Blekkenhorst, L.C., Bondonno, C.P., Lewis, J.R., Sim, M., Croft, K.D., Gislason, G., Torp‐Pedersen, C., Tjønneland, A., Overvad, K., Hodgson, J.M., Schultz, C. and Bondonno, N.P. (2021). Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the Danish Diet Cancer and Health Study. Journal of the American Heart Association, [online] 10(16). Available at: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.120.020551.
- Derbyshire, E. (2018). Brain Health across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review on the Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements. Nutrients, [online] 10(8), p.1094. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116096/.
- Huang, Z., Liu, Y., Qi, G., Brand, D. and Zheng, S. (2018). Role of Vitamin A in the Immune System. Journal of Clinical Medicine, [online] 7(9), p.258. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30200565/#:~:text=Vitamin%20A%20(VitA)%20is%20a,role%20in%20enhancing%20immune%20function.
- Mocchegiani, E., Romeo, J., Malavolta, M., Costarelli, L., Giacconi, R., Diaz, L.-E. and Marcos, A. (2012). Zinc: dietary intake and impact of supplementation on immune function in elderly. AGE, [online] 35(3), pp.839–860. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3636409/.
- Martens, P.-J., Gysemans, C., Verstuyf, A. and Mathieu, C. (2020). Vitamin D’s Effect on Immune Function. Nutrients, [online] 12(5), p.1248. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281985/.
- Cruzat, V., Macedo Rogero, M., Noel Keane, K., Curi, R. and Newsholme, P. (2018). Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation. Nutrients, [online] 10(11), p.1564. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266414/.
- Viribay, A., Burgos, J., Fernández-Landa, J., Seco-Calvo, J. and Mielgo-Ayuso, J. (2020). Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Athletic Performance Based on Energy Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, [online] 12(5), p.1300. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32370176/.
- Wolfe, R.R. (2017). Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, [online] 14(1). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568273/.
- Chun, R.F., Liu, P.T., Modlin, R.L., Adams, J.S. and Hewison, M. (2014). Impact of vitamin D on immune function: lessons learned from genome-wide analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, [online] 5. Available at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2014.00151/full.
- Hulmi, J.J., Lockwood, C.M. and Stout, J.R. (2010). Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein. Nutrition & Metabolism, [online] 7(1), p.51. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901380/.
- Mandaviya, P.R., Joehanes, R., Brody, J., Castillo-Fernandez, J.E., Dekkers, K.F., Do, A.N., Graff, M., Hänninen, I.K., Tanaka, T., de Jonge, E.A.L., Kiefte-de Jong, J.C., Absher, D.M., Aslibekyan, S., de Rijke, Y.B., Fornage, M., Hernandez, D.G., Hurme, M.A., Ikram, M.A., Jacques, P.F. and Justice, A.E. (2019). Association of dietary folate and vitamin B-12 intake with genome-wide DNA methylation in blood: a large-scale epigenome-wide association analysis in 5841 individuals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, [online] 110(2), pp.437–450. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669135/.
- Li, Y., Yao, J., Han, C., Yang, J., Chaudhry, M., Wang, S., Liu, H. and Yin, Y. (2016). Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Nutrients, [online] 8(3), p.167. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4808895/.
- Khodavirdipour, A., Haddadi, F. and Keshavarzi, S. (2020). Chromium Supplementation; Negotiation with Diabetes Mellitus, Hyperlipidemia and Depression. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, [online] 19(1), pp.585–595. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270423/.
- Plannedparenthood.org. (2022). Planned Parenthood. [online] Available at: https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/pregnancy/pre-pregnancy-health/what-are-prenatal-vitamins.
- Jung, H.L., Kwak, H.E., Kim, S.S., Kim, Y.C., Lee, C.D., Byurn, H.K. and Kang, H.Y. (2011). Effects of Panax ginseng Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Inflammation after Uphill Treadmill Running in Humans. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, [online] 39(03), pp.441–450. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21598413/.
- opss. (2021). Elderberry: A dietary supplement for immune health? [online] Available at: https://www.opss.org/article/elderberry-dietary-supplement-immune-health.
- Suhett, L.G., de Miranda Monteiro Santos, R., Silveira, B.K.S., Leal, A.C.G., de Brito, A.D.M., de Novaes, J.F. and Lucia, C.M.D. (2020). Effects of curcumin supplementation on sport and physical exercise: a systematic review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, [online] 61(6), pp.946–958. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32282223/.
- Šimoliūnas, E., Rinkūnaitė, I., Bukelskienė, Ž. and Bukelskienė, V. (2019). Bioavailability of Different Vitamin D Oral Supplements in Laboratory Animal Model. Medicina, [online] 55(6), p.265. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631968/.
- Kesarwani, K. and Gupta, R. (2013). Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, [online] 3(4), pp.253–266. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634921/.
- Choudhry, H. and Nasrullah, Md. (2018). Iodine consumption and cognitive performance: Confirmation of adequate consumption. Food Science & Nutrition, [online] 6(6), pp.1341–1351. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6145226/.
- Medicine LibreTexts. (2017). 11.3: Vitamins Important for Metabolism and for Blood Function and Renewal. [online] Available at: https://med.libretexts.org/Courses/American_Public_University/APUS%3A_An_Introduction_to_Nutrition_(Byerley)/APUS%3A_An_Introduction_to_Nutrition_1st_Edition/11%3A_Nutrients_Involved_in_Hematopoietic_System/11.03%3A_Vitamins_Important_for_Metabolism_and_for_Blood_Function_and_Renewal.
- Park, K. (2015). Role of Micronutrients in Skin Health and Function. Biomolecules & Therapeutics, [online] 23(3), pp.207–217. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428712/.
- Clemesha, C.G., Thaker, H. and Samplaski, M.K. (2020). ‘Testosterone Boosting’ Supplements Composition and Claims Are not Supported by the Academic Literature. The World Journal of Men’s Health, [online] 38(1), p.115. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920068/.
- Aoa.org. (2022). Diet and Nutrition. [online] Available at: https://www.aoa.org/healthy-eyes/caring-for-your-eyes/diet-and-nutrition?sso=y.
- Isenmann, E., Trittel, L. and Diel, P. (2020). The effects of alpha lipoic acid on muscle strength recovery after a single and a short-term chronic supplementation – a study in healthy well-trained individuals after intensive resistance and endurance training. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, [online] 17(1). Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33261642/.
- Mousavi, A., Vafa, M., Neyestani, T., Khamseh, M. and Hoseini, F. (2013). The effects of green tea consumption on metabolic and anthropometric indices in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, [online] 18(12), pp.1080–6. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3908530/.